Should You” shoot” your Child’s Computer? Digital Citizenship is a Better Solution

     
Is it Ever OK to Shoot Your Child’s Computer?
 

                                                  We have a better solution.

 

 

                                                   digital citizenship      

                                              Here is a  description of sooial media and digital citizenship.

 The Project Digital Generation

 Many of today’s kids are born digital — born into a media-rich, networked world of infinite possibilities. But their digital lifestyle is about more than just cool gadgets; it’s about engagement, self-directed learning, creativity, and empowerment. The Digital Generation Project tells their stories so that educators and parents can understand how kids learn, communicate, and socialize in very different ways than any previous generation.

    Facebook’s Digital Citizenship Research Grants

Introduction

Facebook’s Digital Citizenship Research Grants support world-class research to improve our understanding of how social media can impact the next generation. In August 2011, we invited academic and non-profit institutions to apply for the $200,000 in grants funding research that highlights trends associated with digital citizenship. Nearly 100 researchers from more than 10 countries submitted outstanding applications. Based on in-depth evaluation from a team of Facebook employees and our Safety Advisory Board, we are awarding the inaugural Digital Citizenship Research Grants to these four researchers who will advance our global understanding of digital citizenship.

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Our Grantees


Dr. Shaheen Shariff, McGill University

Professor Shaheen Shariff, undertakes research focused on youth and digital media. She guides schools, parents, teens and policy-makers to navigate a balance between online free expression, privacy and safety. Her recent bilingual website, Define the Line helps develop resources, workshops and interactive online forums to reduce cyberbullying and enhance responsible digital citizenship. The DFL team will survey how school kids define the lines between friendly online joking or teasing, and hurtful cyberbullying. They will also examine how teens define the lines between public and private online spaces.

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Dr. Michael Searson, SITE

Dr. Searson is President of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE) and heads the School for Global Education and Innovation program at Kean University. SITE represents approximately 1500 educators, from about 500 institutions of higher education throughout the world. In these roles, Dr. Searson works with educators across the globe to explore issues related to information technologies, informal learning, mobile devices and social media.The SITE project will bring together a coalition of international scholars, researchers and practitioners who will develop an open source course and course modules for the preparation of future teachers to teach digital citizenship.

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Shari Kessel Schneider, Education Development Center (EDC)

Shari Kessel Schneider is a researcher with the Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), a global nonprofit dedicated to designing and evaluating programs that address challenges in health and education. Schneider has done extensive work in the fields of bullying and suicide prevention and has been conducting research on cyberbullying trends since 2006. Working with a large group of school districts, the EDC will engage school leaders, parents, and teens to examine existing programs and policies but also to uncover ideas for new strategies and linkages to encourage positive use of social media. Schools across the country are being mandated to take steps to address cyberbullying and protect the health and safety of youth both at school and online. This research will look at the roles of educators, parents and social networking sites to determine how they can work together.

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Janice Richardson, European Schoolnet (EUN)

Janice Richardson is a senior adviser at European Schoolnet (EUN), an umbrella organization that works with 33 Ministries of Education across Europe to raise internet safety awareness and to transform teaching and learning through the integration of innovative technology. EUN’s grant will be used for their Social Media in Learning and Education (SMILE) Action Research project to investigate the issues of how much teachers are benefitting from the full potential of social media tools. In addition, the SMILE project will create an online learning course and mentoring techniques for educators.

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In Farmville, Learning from Others , Transforming the Teaching and Learning World

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Longwood University / Farmville

Do you know Farmville? not the game but the place.


Mano works closely with 25 school divisions in Southside Virginia, particularly in promoting research based instructional practices and expanding the interactive videoconferencing projects using H.323.

My friend, Dr. Manorama Talaiver and I atended a conference in the fall. I learned from it we both shared information from it. She created a project from the Wireless Summit and other information she has gathered to create new opportunities for Virginia participants , She shared what she learned and crafted outreach, courses and people to learn from for the participants.There is also a page that was created to link participants with funding strategies, and grant information. At the conference you could sign up for summer workshops and projects.

One of the presenters sharing ideas.on augmented reality

One of our guru is Dr. Chris Dede, who puts together the Wireless Conference. Here is the URL to his conference so you can at least get the resources.( He also shared his resources at the ISTE Conference)resources from that conference are here.

The Wireless EdTech website includes the speaker presentations, recorded sessions and photos from the conference. Well you don’t need to glue yourself to the website, but you can research , and download the white paper on wireless at your leisure.

Bringing the Ideas Home to Farmville … and Virginia

It was a recipe for success that Dr. Manorama Talaiver used to create outreach in a rural University, called Longwood. She excels at bringing the ideas to the learning community in Virginia. It is in Farmville , Va. It is a wonderful place to learn.

This was the 5th Annual STEM Summit, Entitled“ Formal and Informal STEM , Learning with Mobile Devices“ on Valentine’s Day. Frederick Bertley gave us a great keynote.

The keynote, Frederic Bertley, from the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, was brilliant — talking about informal science learning. In particular, he had some great slides about minority STEM  role models in science who should be better known (instead of just movie stars and singers). He shared photos of people we should know who are minorities important in STEM.

We learn about the Franklin Science Institute and how it nurtures rural and community

Can you name ten minority STEM  people?
The Center for Innovation in Science Learning, initiated in 1995 as the learning research and development arm of The Franklin Institute, is led by Frederic Bertley, Ph.D. Dr. Bertley is responsible for the sustained development of the learning research portfolio in school partnerships, educational technology programs, gender and family learning, and youth leadership in science and technology.  link

Augmented Reality

from  wikipedia

Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one.

Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world. The term augmented reality is believed to have been coined in 1990 by Thomas Caudell, working at Boeing.[1]

Research explores the application of computer-generated imagery in live-video streams as a way to enhance the perception of the real world. AR technology includes head-mounted displays and virtual retinal displays for visualization purposes, and construction of controlled environments containing sensors and actuators.

Matt Dunleavy, from Radford University, also had a good presentation on ‘Mobile augmented reality for teaching and learning’.

Video

The story-based, participatory AR games developed by the ROAR team are played on Apple iPhones and Android-based smartphones and use GPS technology to correlate the students’ real world location to their virtual location in the game’s digital world.

As the students walk and run around their school grounds, a map on their handheld displays virtual objects and characters (fig. 1 and 2) who exist in an AR layer superimposed on real space. When students come within approximately 30 feet of these digital artifacts, the AR and GPS software trigger video, audio, and text files, which provide academic and problem solving challenges as well as narrative, navigation, and collaboration cues.
John Hendron  shared– iOS Apps for STEM on Mobile Devices  this was fast and furious so I do not have the URLS

One of many dynamic sites he shared.

G21 – 21st Century Skills

MIT – lifelong K group – always learning, he shared the original work of Papert but then told of us new developments
Scratch app created for iPad but taken down after one day
Apple doesn’t want to use iPad for developers

Apps: That he shared and demonstrated for us.

Roller coaster physics

Virtual Roller Coasters powered by mobile devices..

Tinker box
Sketchpad explorer
Protractor
Clean energy

CSTA is piloting AP  computer science course and he shared how to be involved.

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Shodor Foundation – Patricia Jacobs & Jennifer Houchins gave  a  presentation on math flyer.

What better to start with than Math Flyer?

Math Flyer addresses a long-standing gap in Math Education. Traditional education uses static, motionless graphs to indicate the relationships between variables. While this works for some concepts, a student with a function and a picture of a graph gains no intuitive sense of the elements of the function and the relationship of each to the shape of the graph. With Math Flyer, we transform the static world of a graphing calculator into a truly dynamic experience. A student can plot a graph and manipulate all of the variables and constants in that graph, allowing him or her to see the relationships firsthand. For example, if a student plots “mx+b” within Math Flyer, he or she gets a graph of a straight line, but also two sliders labeled “m” and “b”. When the student moves these sliders, the graph updates in real time, giving immediate feedback on the role of “m” (the slope of the line, how steep it is) and “b” (the base or y-intercept, that is, the value of y when x=0) in this function. By focusing on the graph and its equation, rather than on the mechanics of plotting a single line, the student more rapidly builds an intuition about the meaning of “m” and “b” in that equation.

Interactivate
Some of the most popular math teaching software on the web!

All Online Activities →

Shodor’s  mission: to improve math and science education through the effective use of modeling and simulation technologies — “computational science.”

Shodor, a national resource for computational science education, is located in Durham, N.C., and serves students and educators nationwide. Our online education tools such as Interactivate and the Computational Science Education Reference Desk (CSERD), a Pathway Portal of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL), help transform learning through computational thinking.

In addition to developing and deploying interactive models, simulations, and educational tools, Shodor serves students and educators directly through workshops and other hands-on experiences. Shodor offers innovative workshops helping faculty and teachers incorporate computational science into their own curricula or programs. This work is done primarily through the National Computational Science Institute (NCSI) in partnership with TeraGrid, NCSA, and other NSF-funded initiatives.

A mentor works with students in the Shodor Scholars Program

For students from middle school through undergraduate levels of education, Shodor offers workshops, apprenticeships, internships and off-site programs that explore new approaches to math and science education through computational science.

Time and time again, Shodor has been recognized as a national leader and a premier resource in the effective use of computers to improve both math and science education. At this conference, the  primary information shared was the Math  Flyer.

Stephanie Playton – Using cell phones with young students

Even the smallest child in K-12 can be served by mobile devices. This presenter used cell phones to enrich and empower children on a field trip. They had to learn to use the device, they did some texting and used the phone to take pictures of the animals they saw. I don’t have the video on this, but it was so exciting to see that we can change the digital divide by involving students at the lowest levels.


Dr. Kevin Kochersberger – Va Tech is a flyer. Look here He flew the replica of the Wright brothers plane, and shared with us the ideas of  aviation and engineering. He practiced the recreation of the Wright Brothers experience with a simulator , Click through his pictures and you will see it. He also shared these items.


SmartPhone Robotics: Concepts for the Wireless Generation
Using smartphones are much more friendly to program a simulation than using VEX robot!

Mission statement:

The Unmanned Systems Laboratories bring together a diverse collection of researchers to a common facility dedicated to autonomous and remotely operated systems development and integration. Areas of expertise include acoustics, vision and LIDAR systems, image and signal processing, robotics, air and ground vehicle design, ground control stations, communications and vehicle test

Dr. Mary Kasarda and Dr. Brenda Brand, Virginia Tech
Dr. Kasarda gave information on pre-engineering, the STEM workforce, and Virginia Tech’s online courses for teachers. Dr. Kasarda proposed that the Commonwealth require at least one pre-engineering course in the preK-12 curriculum.r. Kasarda and Dr. Brand have developed two online, in-service teachers training classes to better prepare teachers to teach engineering concepts in the classroom.

Dr. Brand discussed the difficulty in attracting underrepresented populations to the STEM fields in the preK-12 system. One successful program highlighted by Dr. Brand was a high school elective class built around and integrated with the FIRST Robotics program. Their presentation was entitled unpack STEM.

There are barriers to use for teachers in technology. One thing is that we
often are given 2.0 resources as if they are the answer to the uses of technology. People are playing around on the web with light weight applications when they could be technofluent with technology in new and meaningful ways.

Mano offered us, Smartphone Robotics, MathFlyer, Mobile Augmented Reality for Teaching and Learning, Logo Draw with Ipad and more than that..

I enjoyed meeting a new person, Stephanie Playton, who shared how she used cell phones with little learners, and how we could get the resources. Her presentation was awesome as well.

Red Tails, Black Stories.. Two Kinds of American History , Who’s Story?

When I was a little girl dark old men told me stories. . .but in the books that I read, I did not see what they said. So I did not believe most of them. I would listen politely, and remember, but I did not believe them.

I had the whole world to learn about ..I did start out with a reputable book.

Slavery, the Peculiar Institution, by Kenneth M. Stampp

What is Black History

This student is searching for home, which for her is South Africa

Here are a few of the stories….

Tuskegee Airmen

There are many sites about the Tuskegee Airmen. “Tuskegee Airmen” refers to all who were involved in the so-called “Tuskegee Experience”, the Army Air Corps program to train African Americans to fly and maintain combat aircraft. The Tuskegee Airmen included pilots, navigators, bombardiers, maintenance and support staff, instructors, and all the personnel who kept the planes in the air. But who knew to look for them? Most museums in the US have a cost associated with them so how would most people see the information. Here is a museum site.

Some of my friends said that black men flew in the war. He said that they were still teaching people to fly from Croom, Maryland. Now back in the day who would ever think that there were black pilots. They were called Tuskegee Airmen. I found a few pictures at the Smithsonian. There was a picture of Elinore Roosevelt who insisted that they be able to  fly. I have never seen this information in a school history book and I am a teacher of many years.

Bessie  Coleman

Never mind that there was a black woman too, who flew. I first learned of her at a NASA workshop.  And Bessie Coleman? Who ever heard of her. I thought it was just a painting  .I thought she was a singer.

 In 1921, Bessie Coleman became the first black women to gain an international permit to fly. After learning French, she attended the famous flight school, Ecole d’Aviation des Frères Caudron in Northern France. No schools in America would train a black person. She was inspired to fly by the stories of Frenchwomen flyers told by her brother John, who had served in France during World War I. Coleman performed acrobatics in air shows around the country and gave lectures inspiring audiences that included many children. She believed that there was freedom in the skies and would not perform in an air show with a segregated audience. On April 30, 1926, she was killed in an airplane piloted by a William Wills as he flew her over the field of the next day’s air show where she was slated as the star.

Coleman was born in Atlanta, Texas, in 1892 as the tenth of thirteen children. They settled in Waxahachie, Texas, and worked as sharecroppers. Her mother encouraged Bessie’s schooling when she showed an aptitude for math. She eventually moved to Chicago and lived with her brother Walter, a Pullman porter. She became a manicurist and worked in the White Sox barbershop. When she returned from Paris, she also worked as a restaurant manager to save money to purchase an airplane. She was helped in this endeavor by friends who included Edwin Beeman from the chewing gum family and Robert S. Abbott, editor and publisher of the Chicago Defender newspaper.

Her dream to open a flying school was never realized, but several years after her death, black aviators formed a network of Bessie Coleman Aero Clubs. In 1990, a road near Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport was renamed for her and five years later the U.S. Postal Department issued the Bessie Coleman Stamp. She was inducted into the Texas Aviation Hall of Fame in 2000.

Sources:
Elizabeth Coleman, Bessie Coleman: The Brownskin Lady Bird (New York: Garland Publishers, 1994);

A Black Explorer? Matthew Henson

Henson at the poles? My childhood friend ‘s father said he was an explorer. I ran to the library.  We ignored him and that history.But I never found a single thing about it in a book until I went to learn in a summer institute at the National Geographic. There are different divisions within the society. We learned from all.

First I learned about Matthew Henson

Born in Maryland on August 6, 1866, Matthew Henson became an orphan when he was only 11 years old. At age 13, he began working on a ship based in Baltimore, Maryland, as a cabin boy. The ship’s skipper taught Henson to read and write.

In 1890, Henson joined Peary’s first Arctic expedition across the northern tip of Greenland. From June 1891 to August 1902, Henson spent seven years in the Arctic with Peary, covering 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) on dogsleds across northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island, in Canada.

In 1906, after drifting pack ice repeatedly blocked earlier attempts to reach the Pole, Henson and Peary set out again on their new three-masted steamship schooner, the Roosevelt. “It’ll work,” said Henson, “if God, wind, leads, ice, snow, and all the hells of this damned frozen land are willing.” Blizzards and cracking ice sheets forced their return once again, although Peary wrote in his diary, “When my observations were taken … they showed that we had reached 87°6′ north latitude, and had at last beaten the record, for which I thanked God.”

Then on August 18, 1909, Henson and Peary boarded the Roosevelt with 22 Inuit men, 17 Inuit women, 10 children, 246 dogs, 70 tons (64 metric tons) of whale meat from Labrador, the meat and blubber of 50 walruses, hunting equipment, and tons of coal. In February, Henson and Peary departed their anchored ship at Ellesmere Island’s Cape Sheridan, with the Inuit men and 130 dogs working to lay a trail and supplies along the route to the Pole.

Many Inuits admired Henson for his hunting and sled-driving skills, as well as his ability to speak their language. Peary said, “He was more of an Eskimo than some of them.” On April 6, 1909, Henson arrived at Camp Jesup, 89°47′, 45 minutes ahead of Peary, concluding by dead reckoning that he had reached the Pole. Henson greeted Peary, “I think I’m the first man to sit on top of the world.Born in Maryland on August 6, 1866, Matthew Henson became an orphan when he was only 11 years old. At age 13, he began working on a ship based in Baltimore, Maryland, as a cabin boy. The ship’s skipper taught Henson to read and write.

In 1890, Henson joined Peary’s first Arctic expedition across the northern tip of Greenland. From June 1891 to August 1902, Henson spent seven years in the Arctic with Peary, covering 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) on dogsleds across northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island, in Canada.

In 1906, after drifting pack ice repeatedly blocked earlier attempts to reach the Pole, Henson and Peary set out again on their new three-masted steamship schooner, the Roosevelt. “It’ll work,” said Henson, “if God, wind, leads, ice, snow, and all the hells of this damned frozen land are willing.” Blizzards and cracking ice sheets forced their return once again, although Peary wrote in his diary, “When my observations were taken … they showed that we had reached 87°6′ north latitude, and had at last beaten the record, for which I thanked God.”

Then on August 18, 1909, Henson and Peary boarded the Roosevelt with 22 Inuit men, 17 Inuit women, 10 children, 246 dogs, 70 tons (64 metric tons) of whale meat from Labrador, the meat and blubber of 50 walruses, hunting equipment, and tons of coal. In February, Henson and Peary departed their anchored ship at Ellesmere Island’s Cape Sheridan, with the Inuit men and 130 dogs working to lay a trail and supplies along the route to the Pole.

Many Inuits admired Henson for his hunting and sled-driving skills, as well as his ability to speak their language. Peary said, “He was more of an Eskimo than some of them.” On April 6, 1909, Henson arrived at Camp Jesup, 89°47′, 45 minutes ahead of Peary, concluding by dead reckoning that he had reached the Pole. Henson greeted Peary, “I think I’m the first man to sit on top of the world.

Some of the men who lived in my block told a different tale. They said they helped to dig the tunnel. Since we are not talking about John Henry , who was black, or black diamonds( coal) This information is hard to find and annotate. Much of it is classified. Explore this on your own. I went to school with a grandchild of Matthew Henson. No one ever mentioned his grandfather’s name, ever.

I am a descendant of Thomas Jefferson, My friend told me!

I was dating a guy in Petersburg, Virginia. As we got serious about the relationship he told me that he was a descendant of Thomas Jefferson. This was before all the Sally Hemmings stories and all, and being from Virginia I knew that the politics of permission would not allow such a liaison no matter what. Slave women had been burned and or shunned because of this. Before Obama became president there was simply the idea that if you had one drop of black blood that you were black. So confusing. Black people are of many colors.

FOR the first time, in 1999  Black descendants of U.S. President Thomas Jefferson recently attended the annual Jefferson family reunion at his Monticello estate in Charlottesville, VA.

At the emotional and at times angry family meetings, White descendants of President Jefferson refused to let Black relatives of his slave Sally Hemings join the family’s Monticello Association.

I decided that this guy was crazy. I  had asked for proof but he said that the data was in the hands of the family. He was going to law school and we sort of drifted apart after that. I did not know what to believe. Years later , I saw him on television being recognized as a descendant of Thomas Jefferson.

Russell Cooley here is his interview from a PBS presentation

   Robert Cooley is a retired US Army lieutenant colonel currently practicing as an attorney in Richmond, Virginia. He formerly served as a US magistrate and state judge in Virginia and as a military judge in the US Army.
  What is your relationship with Thomas Jefferson?
Thomas Jefferson is my great-great-great-great-great-grandfather.

“Thomas Jefferson is my great-great
-great-great-great-
grandfather.”

  How did that come about?
Well, my grandfather told me about it when I was 10 years old. He called me into his livingroom in Pittsburgh and he said, “Son, it’s time for you to learn about your heritage.” And my grandfather was the president of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society, and he said, “You’re a special person. You’re part of a special family. You, through your mother and me, and my mother and so on, are a descendant of Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States.” I was 10 years old at the time. I was very precocious, too. I was a graduate of high school at the age of 15 and college at 19 and I was a JD at the age of 22. But I knew who Jefferson was. I didn’t know who Sally Hemings was but I knew who Jefferson was. And, for a moment, I was very thrilled by that revelation.

  So without a doubt, Sally Hemings was Thomas Jefferson’s mistress?
Yes. That is…Sally was, without a doubt, Thomas Jefferson’s mistress, lover, substitute wife, for 38 years. No question about it.

“We didn’t know one another, but each of us had virtually the identical oral history.”

  How does your family know that Sally had a relationship with Thomas Jefferson?
Oh, we know it because Sally was a very articulate woman, contrary to current characterizations. She was very articulate. She was very educated. She told us. She told her son Thomas, and Thomas told others in his family. And so, in my family, I have the benefit of 200 years of consistent, solid oral history. And this history was carried on by representatives of at least five different sons and daughters of Thomas Woodson, and later by people who didn’t know one another. There were families in Pennsylvania, in Ohio, in Texas, and in Tennessee. We didn’t know one another, but each of us had virtually the identical oral history.   

See the whole interview at the given URL.

Black Men in the Army Corps of Engineers?

Army Corp of Engineers A tunnel to West Virginia from the White House and there is. Recently it has been expanded but back when I was a kid, I thought those old men had been in the sun too long. I used to think you could find information in books.

Tunnel to West Virginia from the White House

. They said that there was a tunnel that went all the way to West Virginia.They said that they worked it with the Army Corps of Engineers. I listened politely to their stories, but my imagination could not handle a tunnel from DC to West Virginia. I shook my head and ran off to play a game. When I worked at the White House for a technology initiative I was shown the tunnel. When I was in West Virginia I saw the place that is the end of the tunnel. There has been a new “safe” place developed. But I still marveled that such a feat had been accomplished.  I am able to find this information on the Internet about the tunnel and newer projects.

Egyptians are Black, Greek and Arabic

Another old man who wore a Fez talked to me about Egypt. I listened to his stories but did not have the books to read about and learn if he was telling the truth or not. He said that there  were Nubians, black people in Egypt too.

I loved the stories about King Tut and liked reading stories about Egypt. So I decided to go to Egypt. Alone. That was probably not a good idea, but I went. It was totally different than anything I had read I saw the mix of people and read the history of upper and lower Egypt and of the Greek era. It was amazing to me. The people on the street looked like relatives , well some of them. I spent  two weeks in Egypt and had read a lot of books about Upper and Lower Egypt and the Nile. Thanks to the National Geographic I knew how to do the research. I had been razzed because I was wearing a necklace that showed a beautiful woman from Egypt. I was told by some people that she was not black. Neferititi and a person yanked the necklace from around my neck. Never mind  talking about Cleopatra.

Nefertiti

Nefertiti – History.com

Queen Nefertiti (ca. 1370 BC- ca. 1330 BC) was the wife of Akhenaten, one of the most controversial rulers of the 18th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. As … Read more

Here from Wikipedia, is an explanation of race in Egypt. I was living in Greece at the time and they had told me this, but I did not believe it. Here is the information from Wikipedia

Since the second half of the 20th century, scholarly consensus has held that applying modern notions of race to ancient Egypt is anachronistic. Frank M. Snowden asserts that “Egyptians, Greeks and Romans attached no special stigma to the color of the skin and developed no hierarchical notions of race whereby highest and lowest positions in the social pyramid were based on color.”.[2][3] Additionally, typological and hierarchical models of race have increasingly been rejected by scientists.

In the late 20th century, the typological model was revived in the domain of Afrocentric historiography and Black nationalism which tends to insist that Ancient Egypt was a “black civilization”, with particular focus on links to southern African cultures and on the race of specific notable individuals from Dynastic times, including Tutankhamun,[4] Cleopatra VII,[5][6][7] and the king represented in the Great Sphinx of Giza.[8][9

thank you George Lucas for making us aware of some  real hidden history.