School to Prison Pipeline- the Achievement Gap

%255BUNSET%255D-12

008At the SITE.org conference there was a presentation, a keynote referencing the trouble of boys, minority boys. People seem to have just discovered this problem. It may be because of the President’s initiative. I have known so many people who got lost in the system, I did not want to go and cry and think about them.I lived in Alexandria, Virginia when the city’s population was mostly black and white. People came to Alexandria from the deep south to go to school. Most everyone in my family has done some teaching. I dedicated my working life to making change, but not a lot of change has happened.

it is Spring on the Chesapeake. Gone are the days of using Oystering for a living, crabbing and a little truck gardening for a sustainable life. Today, one need to code, use computers, and have lots of other skills. But the industrial arts seem to have disappeared here and there.

IMG_0264

When I first started teaching in a school, a black school, there was a place right outside my window where day laborers huddled around a fire. Lots of the kids that were in that class had relatives who were out there. I didn’t have to say much about why it was important to learn. Those huddled around the fire, said it all.We never teased about it, but people’s relatives were there.
You just had to look.

SOCIAL JUSTICE AND DIGITAL EQUITY- SIG DE NOTES FOR NOVEMBER

My dad was a high school shop teacher. He was also a mentor for many troubled boys. I have seen them come and go. When he died so many came to say goodbye.. but all of them could not, as some of them did not escape the prison system.

Fortunately ,many did and talked about mentorship, how he counseled them and helped them. My mother fussed a lot about these boys, who ate, sometimes slept and who hung around our family. My dad paid them regular wages when they crawled under houses and wired people’s homes.This was good for them to learn to earn, manage and have a plan for getting to go to school, if that was what they wanted. Some of them used Industrial Arts to earn money to go to college. * I was married by one of his students, who paused in the ceremony to speak of my father. Lots of those types of opportunities have disappeared from career education.

When integration happened, my father got the dregs, the people no one wanted to teach. They used to always put them into shop. My father was a no nonsense kind of guy who was able to teach bricklaying, electrical shop and carpentry. He had a wry sense of humor that helped a lot too. I am not sure where he learned to be able to teach people with disabilities. He was excellent in that skill. There were students who did really well, but they had to go by the rules.

My father and a Jewish friend of his, re-habbed houses for people who escaped the Holocaust, and poor people who came up from southern states as well. During those days, the NAACP and Jewish leaders worked together because they understood the problems of exclusion.

The things that people said about the prison pipeline were nothing new. But I am glad they said them. Maybe people new to the problem will care. We still have discretional segregation and some of it is done so skillfully that many people are not aware of it.

Here is an excellent written presentation of the problem from Teaching Tolerance.

Publications
The School-to-Prison Pipeline

Blogs and Articles: Discipline and Behavior
Printer-friendly versionPrinter-friendly version
Number 43: Spring 2013

Illustration by Chris Buzelli
In Meridian, Miss., police routinely arrest and transport youths to a juvenile detention center for minor classroom misbehaviors. In Jefferson Parish, La., according to a U.S. Department of Justice complaint, school officials have given armed police “unfettered authority to stop, frisk, detain, question, search and arrest schoolchildren on and off school grounds.” In Birmingham, Ala., police officers are permanently stationed in nearly every high school.

In fact, hundreds of school districts across the country employ discipline policies that push students out of the classroom and into the criminal justice system at alarming rates—a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline.

Last month, Sen. Richard Durbin, D-Ill., held the first federal hearing on the school-to-prison pipeline—an important step toward ending policies that favor incarceration over education and disproportionately push minority students and students with disabilities out of schools and into jails.

In opening the hearing, Durbin told the subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee, “For many young people, our schools are increasingly a gateway to the criminal justice system. This phenomenon is a consequence of a culture of zero tolerance that is widespread in our schools and is depriving many children of their fundamental right to an education.”

A wide array of organizations—including the Southern Poverty Law Center, the NAACP and Dignity in Schools—offered testimony during the hearing. They joined representatives from the Departments of Education and Justice to shine a national spotlight on a situation viewed far too often as a local responsibility.

“We have a national problem that deserves federal action,” Matthew Cregor, an attorney with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, explained. “With suspension a top predictor of dropout, we must confront this practice if we are ever to end the ‘dropout crisis’ or the so-called achievement gap.” In the words of Vermont’s Sen. Patrick Leahy, “As a nation, we can do better.”

What is the School-to-Prison Pipeline?
Policies that encourage police presence at schools, harsh tactics including physical restraint, and automatic punishments that result in suspensions and out-of-class time are huge contributors to the pipeline, but the problem is more complex than that.

The school-to-prison pipeline starts (or is best avoided) in the classroom. When combined with zero-tolerance policies, a teacher’s decision to refer students for punishment can mean they are pushed out of the classroom—and much more likely to be introduced into the criminal justice system.

Who’s in the Pipeline?
Students from two groups—racial minorities and children with disabilities—are disproportionately represented in the school-to-prison pipeline. African-American students, for instance, are 3.5 times more likely than their white classmates to be suspended or expelled, according to a nationwide study by the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. Black children constitute 18 percent of students, but they account for 46 percent of those suspended more than once.

For students with disabilities, the numbers are equally troubling. One report found that while 8.6 percent of public school children have been identified as having disabilities that affect their ability to learn, these students make up 32 percent of youth in juvenile detention centers.

The racial disparities are even starker for students with disabilities. About 1 in 4 black children with disabilities were suspended at least once, versus 1 in 11 white students, according to an analysis of the government report by Daniel J. Losen, director of the Center for Civil Rights Remedies of the Civil Rights Project at UCLA.

A landmark study published last year tracked nearly 1 million Texas students for at least six years. The study controlled for more than 80 variables, such as socioeconomic class, to see how they affected the likelihood of school discipline. The study found that African Americans were disproportionately punished compared with otherwise similar white and Latino students. Children with emotional disabilities also were disproportionately suspended and expelled.

In other studies, Losen found racial differences in suspension rates have widened since the early 1970s and that suspension is being used more frequently as a disciplinary tool. But he said his recent study and other research show that removing children from school does not improve their behavior. Instead, it greatly increases the likelihood that they’ll drop out and wind up behind bars.

Punishing Policies
The SPLC advocates for changes to end the school-to-prison pipeline and has filed lawsuits or civil rights complaints against districts with punitive discipline practices that are discriminatory in impact.

According to the U.S. Department of Justice, the number of school resource officers rose 38 percent between 1997 and 2007. Jerri Katzerman, SPLC deputy legal director, said this surge in police on campus has helped to criminalize many students and fill the pipeline.

One 2005 study found that children are far more likely to be arrested at school than they were a generation ago. The vast majority of these arrests are for nonviolent offenses. In most cases, the students are simply being disruptive. And a recent U.S. Department of Education study found that more than 70 percent of students arrested in school-related incidents or referred to law enforcement are black or Hispanic. Zero-tolerance policies, which set one-size-fits-all punishments for a variety of behaviors, have fed these trends.

Best Practices
Instead of pushing children out, Katzerman said, “Teachers need a lot more support and training for effective discipline, and schools need to use best practices for behavior modification to keep these kids in school where they belong.”

Keeping at-risk kids in class can be a tough order for educators under pressure to meet accountability measures, but classroom teachers are in a unique position to divert students from the school-to-prison pipeline.

Teachers know their students better than any resource officer or administrator—which puts them in a singularly empowered position to keep students in the classroom. It’s not easy, but when teachers take a more responsive and less punitive approach in the classroom, students are more likely to complete their education.

The information in “A Teacher’s Guide to Rerouting the Pipeline” highlights common scenarios that push young people into the school-to-prison pipeline and offers practical advice for how teachers can dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline.

>> Avoiding the Pipeline

How can school districts divert the school-to-prison pipeline?
1. Increase the use of positive behavior interventions and supports.
2. Compile annual reports on the total number of disciplinary actions that push students out of the classroom based on gender, race and ability.
3. Create agreements with police departments and court systems to limit arrests at school and the use of restraints, such as mace and handcuffs.
4. Provide simple explanations of infractions and prescribed responses in the student code of conduct to ensure fairness.
5. Create appropriate limits on the use of law enforcement in public schools.
6. Train teachers on the use of positive behavior supports for at-risk students.

What is the School-to-Prison Pipeline?
Policies that encourage police presence at schools, harsh tactics including physical restraint, and automatic punishments that result in suspensions and out-of-class time are huge contributors to the pipeline, but the problem is more complex than that.

The school-to-prison pipeline starts (or is best avoided) in the classroom. When combined with zero-tolerance policies, a teacher’s decision to refer students for punishment can mean they are pushed out of the classroom—and much more likely to be introduced into the criminal justice system.

Who’s in the Pipeline?
Students from two groups—racial minorities and children with disabilities—are disproportionately represented in the school-to-prison pipeline. African-American students, for instance, are 3.5 times more likely than their white classmates to be suspended or expelled, according to a nationwide study by the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. Black children constitute 18 percent of students, but they account for 46 percent of those suspended more than once.

For students with disabilities, the numbers are equally troubling. One report found that while 8.6 percent of public school children have been identified as having disabilities that affect their ability to learn, these students make up 32 percent of youth in juvenile detention centers.

The racial disparities are even starker for students with disabilities. About 1 in 4 black children with disabilities were suspended at least once, versus 1 in 11 white students, according to an analysis of the government report by Daniel J. Losen, director of the Center for Civil Rights Remedies of the Civil Rights Project at UCLA.

A landmark study published last year tracked nearly 1 million Texas students for at least six years. The study controlled for more than 80 variables, such as socioeconomic class, to see how they affected the likelihood of school discipline. The study found that African Americans were disproportionately punished compared with otherwise similar white and Latino students. Children with emotional disabilities also were disproportionately suspended and expelled.

In other studies, Losen found racial differences in suspension rates have widened since the early 1970s and that suspension is being used more frequently as a disciplinary tool. But he said his recent study and other research show that removing children from school does not improve their behavior. Instead, it greatly increases the likelihood that they’ll drop out and wind up behind bars.

Punishing Policies
The SPLC advocates for changes to end the school-to-prison pipeline and has filed lawsuits or civil rights complaints against districts with punitive discipline practices that are discriminatory in impact.

According to the U.S. Department of Justice, the number of school resource officers rose 38 percent between 1997 and 2007. Jerri Katzerman, SPLC deputy legal director, said this surge in police on campus has helped to criminalize many students and fill the pipeline.

One 2005 study found that children are far more likely to be arrested at school than they were a generation ago. The vast majority of these arrests are for nonviolent offenses. In most cases, the students are simply being disruptive. And a recent U.S. Department of Education study found that more than 70 percent of students arrested in school-related incidents or referred to law enforcement are black or Hispanic. Zero-tolerance policies, which set one-size-fits-all punishments for a variety of behaviors, have fed these trends.

Best Practices
Instead of pushing children out, Katzerman said, “Teachers need a lot more support and training for effective discipline, and schools need to use best practices for behavior modification to keep these kids in school where they belong.”

Keeping at-risk kids in class can be a tough order for educators under pressure to meet accountability measures, but classroom teachers are in a unique position to divert students from the school-to-prison pipeline.

Teachers know their students better than any resource officer or administrator—which puts them in a singularly empowered position to keep students in the classroom. It’s not easy, but when teachers take a more responsive and less punitive approach in the classroom, students are more likely to complete their education.

The information in “A Teacher’s Guide to Rerouting the Pipeline” highlights common scenarios that push young people into the school-to-prison pipeline and offers practical advice for how teachers can dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline.

Saturday class at JEF

Saturday class at JEF


Avoiding the Pipeline

How can school districts divert the school-to-prison pipeline?
1. Increase the use of positive behavior interventions and supports.
2. Compile annual reports on the total number of disciplinary actions that push students out of the classroom based on gender, race and ability.
3. Create agreements with police departments and court systems to limit arrests at school and the use of restraints, such as mace and handcuffs.
4. Provide simple explanations of infractions and prescribed responses in the student code of conduct to ensure fairness.
5. Create appropriate limits on the use of law enforcement in public schools.
6. Train teachers on the use of positive behavior supports for at-risk students.

Personalizing education and teaching career skills help also.Jack Taub used to say . “When inequality is everyone’s problem, maybe something will be done about it.”
Superhero kid. Girl power concept
Well the problem is a national one now.
Jack said that we could empower students to have superpowers.

Let’s do it.

http://cloakinginequity.com/2014/05/16/brown-v-board-fails-resegregation-is-accidentally-on-purpose-brownat60/

The Creativity Revolution , Some of Us were Integrating Art into Science Long Ago

Teachers and professors on the tour

A lot of people who never entered a classroom that I used to teach in, began to chastise me about inserting art into my curriculum. When I stopped laughing, because my side hurt, I started to tell them that the insertion of art, and STEM is how I start to teach.

What is Black History

This student is searching for home, which for her is South Africa


The Winds of Politics changes education. Sadly it can keep creativity out.
NCLB, etc.

Initially .for a long time I was privileged to be a teacher of the gifted. Because I am of color, I always added a few more students to my class who were minority, immigrant or special ed. Why? Think about it. Never did I want to walk through a class of 75 kids in a team when I only had 15 students. Never did I want to exclude minority kids.

Some of my best students were the children who were given to me who were not considered to be G and T. So what you need to know is that innovation, creativity and problem solving can be taught to all. Technology allows us to do many things, but the powers in education do not let most teachers develop their skills in personalizing education.The way in which I teach cannot be done in many cases because it is complicated. It depends on a belief in a teacher and staff development.

orienteering
What was funny was that teachers always gave me the children they thought were a problem, in fact most people considered gifted and talented students to be a problem because they were innovative, curious, asking questions and wanting to fly through the work.

Thinking about Ancient Egypt

I have turned my room into Ancient Egypt.. with mummies and inscribed walls.This was a beautiful room, with books , movies , digital information on Egypt. There was at one time a web site entitled Little Horus.. and I had learned to make papyrus, 

Once in a while we were a space station with the wonderful posters and artifacts from space and science fiction, We used visualization and modeling and wonderful information from supercomputing in the humanities.

 

 

.

Coding
Engineering, Geography, World Cultures

Egypt
I read about Egypt as a child.There was a man with a red Fez who told me stories of Ancient Egypt who lived on my block.He was a black man from Egypt who told us about the country.

I read the accounts of the finds of Sir Howard Carter. I read these books and more.I saw the exhibit in Washington of King Tuts treasures and kept the catalogue for a very long time.There was a book of the Dead, This book told people dead people , who were buried with it, how to get to the kingdom of Osiris.
THere was a store called Ancient Discoveries in Alexandria , Virginia I learned a lot there, and then later in life I visited Egypt.I found things there to teach with.

Reading

I used ESS Structures for the engineering and a book given to me during Engineering week for the lessons.
We built a lot of things, using different materials, and tested structure.

THere are many books that we, the students and I read, some of which are copied here.
Pyramids
by David Macaulay ( ISBN 0-590-99518-9, Trumpet)
This is one of my favorite books for teaching about Egypt.

This book takes an impressive look at what many consider to be among the most awesome of man’s creations-the pyramids of Egypt. Macaulay, through word and blackline drawings, shows Egyptian life and how the pyramids were built. He also talks about the way that Egyptians were readied for the next life. This is a wonderful book about the architecture of the pyramids. THe illustrations are great and simply tell the story.ˆ

The Great Pyramid by Elizabeth Mann
This picture book contains a story within a story as it tells about the building of the great pyramid. While reading about King Khufu and his life, one, also learns why he wanted to build a pyramid, and how the pyramid was constructed. Great detail is given as to the Egyptian life style, including the life of the farmers, who became slaves while building the great pyramid. Beautiful illustrations help capture the essence of this time in history. This is a great book to read to the class, as well as have available for students to enjoy on their own. ˆ

Pyramids by Anne Millard ISBN #0-590-63247-7 (Scholastic)
Ever since ancient times the pyramid as a structural shape has captured out imaginations and played a meaningful and fascinating part in civilized societies. From the ziggurats of Babylon and the Valley of the Kings in ancient Egypt to the towering monuments built by the Aztecs and Maya in Central America, Pyramids examines the mythology and the history of these massive and intriguing creations. ˆ

The Egyptian News by Scott Steedman
This is an over-sized book that is written like a newspaper, telling about the life in Ancient Egypt. The articles are fun and informative, and written as though the events were just happening. Events such as “HYSOS HAMMERED”, “BOY-KING DIES”, “THE LONGEST BOAT IN OUR COUNTRY”, which tells of Pharaoh Khufu’s famous funerary boat. There are clever advertisements, a fitness quiz, a Who’s Who list of the famous men, The Top Gods, and how to mummify your body. There is a great gossip section telling about the latest banquet, what was eaten, and who was there. A great book to share while studying this fun time in history. It is fun to see a book that teaches facts in such a fun way. One forgets they are learning while enjoying the articles. ˆ
Hieroglyphs from A to Z by Peter Der Manuelian (ISBN 0-590-40008-8, Scholastic)

Hieroglyphs are drawings of ancient symbols found on Egyptian tombs and temple walls. On each page of this book there are hieroglyphs and information about Egyptian culture. The narrative is written in rhyme. Using a stencil of the hieroglyphs, you can learn how to write secret messages with Egyptian symbols.
*This book comes with a stencil of hieroglyphs. ˆ

Mummies, Tombs, and Treasure by Lila Perl ( ISBN 0-590-96226-4, Scholastic)
What happens to people after they die? The Egyptians thought if they mummified a dead person, his spirit would live forever. At first nature did the job; the desert sun dried and preserved bodies buried in shallow sandpit graves. Mummifying methods became more elaborate with time, as did after-life dwelling places. Eventually, the Egyptians built the largest known tombs-the pyramids-in which wealthy Egyptians were buried with food, household items, and treasure. The ancient Egyptian way of death has left us a rich legacy of information about a way of life of which there is no other record. Lila Perl’s thoroughly documented account is as fascinating as it is revealing. ˆ

But to have a good read, there are books of the discoveries of Sir Howard Carter, or reports about Howard Carter.
.
This is a book I read over and over.
There was also some book that shared how to make a mummy.
I was fascinated. THen there was a laser disc program about the examination of a mummy.I always wanted to know how they extracted the brain of the mummy through the nose.
I think I could have been an archaeologist if I had more knowledge in my early life of how to follow that career
Here is an online sharing about Sir Howard Carter.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carter.htm

I learned to make Koshari, and an Egyptian breakfast, but food was not the subject of my teaching .. the art teacher
and I had students making personal names in Egyptian symbols, and we learned a little astronomy, so different than American teaching of the night skies. Online there is a “Windows to the Universe” There are three levels of astronomy and culture on this site.

Technology? Web site

Little Horus was the first Egyptian website especially designed for children. The website consisted of over 700 pages of information and illustrations that address children between the ages 6 to 15 in both Arabic and English. Little Horus provides a comprehensive journey that transcends Egypt’s 7000 years of civilization into an educational and cultural experience for children, adults, educators and professionals. Not only this, but Little Horus also offered children games, fun and entertainment to suit all ages. The site offered a variety of portals that provide a contemporary view of Egypt through Pharonic, Coptic, Greek and Modern civilizations. Teachers and students from several countries use the site as an educational reference material.

Little Horus received both national and international recognition for its excellence and commitment to edutainment within the Arab region. The continued success of Little Horus resulted in prestigious awards and received the 1st place in the Cable & Wireless Childnet International Award, the best Achiever of the Internet Society of Egypt (ISE) 1999 Annual Award, and was published in Bill Gates book as one of the best sites for children but sadly, it is no longer on the Internet.

Most of the time I used museums and places of hands on as well, but this post is not about me, I am sharing ideas from International Art, and some words to the wise from friends of mine who are scientists.

 

http://www.windows2universe.org/mythology/myths_stories_art.html

Let me give you one other example.

%255BUNSET%255D-6

Rainforests, Reefs, and Jungles

When I taught Rainforests, I used resources from the National Geographic ( Started with the journey of a bar of chocolate), Earthwatch, The Jason Project. As a teacher I could Mix and match and use ( laser disks provided by the Lucas Foundation) we could create our own little stories.

Games became a focus. Do you remember Amazon Trail?http://www.myabandonware.com/game/the-amazon-trail-1mf the Voyage of the Mimi had its own games too. Navigation, Map Making.

Oh how we loved their focused programs, and Dr. Robert Ballard’s sharing of field trips into jungle environments. As a teacher of a group of National Geographic teachers I had access to the tapes of programs developed by George Stuart, on the Maya. Those tapes were archaeology, science, culture, history, astronomy and so much more and games.

The collective name for those was the “Voyage of the Mimi“.Here is the video, which then starred Ben Affleck. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3re1ROrBZsg

http://www.windows2universe.org/mythology/myths_stories_art.html

Let me give you one other example.

Rainforests, Reefs, and Jungles

When I taught Rainforests, I used resources from the National Geographic ( Started with the journey of a bar of chocolate), Earthwatch, The Jason Project. As a teacher I could Mix and match and use ( laser disks provided by the Lucas Foundation) we could create our own little stories. The Jason Project is powerfully innovative.http://www.jason.org

Games became a focus. Do you remember Amazon Trail?http://www.myabandonware.com/game/the-amazon-trail-1mf the Voyage of the Mimi had its own games too. Navigation, Map Making.

Oh how we loved their focused programs, and Dr. Robert Ballard’s sharing of field trips into jungle environments. As a teacher of a group of National Geographic teachers I had access to the tapes of programs developed by George Stuart, on the Maya. Those tapes were archaeology, science, culture, history, astronomy and so much more and games.

The collective name for those was the “Voyage of the Mimi”.Here is the video, which then starred Ben Affleck. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3re1ROrBZsg

Vinton Cerf says in a Magazine, Child Art, January -March 2014,

There are ways of collaborating on the Net Now that would allow multiple people to create works of art together. Those works of art may be in the virtual space. They could also be in the real world-suppose you created something that a three dimensional
printer could print. Collaboration is one thing .”

Vinton Cerf says in a Magazine, Child Art, January -March 2014,

There are ways of collaborating on the Net Now that would allow multiple people to create works of art together. Those works of art may be in the virtual space. They could also be in the real world-suppose you created something that a three dimensional
printer could print. Collaboration is one thing .”

He further says, “Another possibility is melding so many different modalities through one medium. I can send and receive imagery, sound and I have the opportunity to manipulate the perimeters of images, sound and other properties of something I’m working with.”

Most teachers don’t get a chance to do this type of innovation , based on the models of teaching and learning that have been presented to them in their educational landscape. To tell the truth, I was asked to leave a school, because the principal wanted me to teach only out of the book, and to prepare only for testing. I found a principal, Camay Murphy, who went on the learning journeys with me and took the rest of the staff. We won many prizes. But, as successful as I was, I could not find a home for creativity, innovation and new learning landscapes.

So I consult , write and dream.monday 050