Thinking of Hawaii

The state of Hawaii is in the news everywhere these days.lava-magma-volcanic-eruption-glow-73830.jpeg

It was the second on my wish list to travel to as a teacher. I knew a lot about Hawaii because of its flowers. I love tropical flowers. But I was also interested in volcanology. Fortunately the Challenger Center Workshop presenters were awarded a workshop on the Big Island, right there in Volcanoes National Park.

 

The status and summary, updated. Updated news about Hawaii

Where is Hawaii?

What island are we talking about ?

What is happening? What do we know?

When I taught back in the day ,there was this movie, that we had to share with students that shared the last big eruption of the volcano. Here is a map to show which island and the location of the flow. The state of Hawaii is several islands and is still expanding. We did not have GIS or live photos like these.

If you have access to Science on a Sphere, you can easily learn

plate tec·ton·ics
noun
  1. a theory explaining the structure of the earth’s crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle.

This is a project in some schools , museums and public places that will teach you earth science. The ring of fire is what we use to tell about volcanology.

It is here.

In learning places like museums, schools and community centers you might be able to learn about plate tectonics with a hug globe on which images are projected.iuri

The tools that we have now to explore and learn about earth science are fantastic.

There is a laptop version. It is called Explorer

What is SOS Explorer?

Hilary

Hilary Peddicord uses SOSx in the single screen
mode at Casey Middle School in Boulder, CO

SOS Explorer (SOSx) is a flat screen version of the widely popular Science On a Sphere® (SOS). The revolutionary software takes SOS datasets, usually only seen on a 6-foot sphere in large museum spaces, and makes them more accessible. Animated images such as atmospheric storms, climate change, and ocean temperature can be shown in SOSx, which explains sometimes complex environmental processes in a way that is simultaneously intuitive and captivating.

NOAA uses SOSx as an instrument to highlight and disseminate cutting edge science to the world through visualizations that show information provided by satellites, ground observations and computer models.

Features Include:

  • Easy to use touchscreen interface for maximum interactivity
  • Over 140 datasets, including real-time datasets with descriptions
  • Educational videos linked to specific datasets for deeper inquiry
  • Tours that create a narrative through the datasets and help users make connections
  • Analysis tools to easily measure, probe, and plot data from the visualizations
  • Immersive, first person experiences: walk on the Moon, pilot a submarine, or take cover from a tornado
  • Stunning graphics in beautiful 4k resolution
  • Dual screen or single screen configuration options
  • SOSx Tour Builder that allows for the addition of new datasets and the creation of tours
  • Virtual Reality add-on
  • 360 degree video content
  • International language support
  • Compatibility with interactive projectors, screens, tables, and smartboards

GIS 1

Lots of people want to know how to make it Science, Technology. Engineering and Math. The lessons here are incredible for the Explorer program. You can learn using GIS from ESRI very well. The story maps are quite interesting and students could use the newspaper articles to create their own story maps. Here is an exercise for students to complete. In this exercise the student uses data to evaluate. This personalizes the experience. The students have to T H I N K and use data. I love this lesson.

When a volcano erupts, how much time do residents have to evacuate? That depends. Lava flows downhill and travels faster over steep ground. In the early 1990s, residents of Kalapana, a town in the southeastern Puna region, had days or even weeks to prepare for a lava flow that eventually covered the town. By contrast, a 1950 lava flow down the western flank of Mauna Loa reached the sea in about four hours. Although scientists monitor ground movement on the island continuously, there is no way to know how much advance notice residents living downhill of an eruption will receive.

In this lesson, you’ll begin to explore the relationships among lava flow zones, emergency shelters, and population. By the end, you’ll be ready to ask some questions that you’ll answer in the remaining lessons.

 

 

Explore the data and ask questions

When a volcano erupts, how much time do residents have to evacuate? That depends. Lava flows downhill and travels faster over steep ground. In the early 1990s, residents of Kalapana, a town in the southeastern Puna region, had days or even weeks to prepare for a lava flow that eventually covered the town. By contrast, a 1950 lava flow down the western flank of Mauna Loa reached the sea in about four hours. Although scientists monitor ground movement on the island continuously, there is no way to know how much advance notice residents living downhill of an eruption will receive.

Hawaiian folklore and art are interesting to link to the lessons.  So is thinking about walking through a lava tube. What is it? What should it be like inside? Why is it called a lava tube? How long are they, and where can they be found? Why does NASA use them for training?No automatic alt text available.

You can see my Volcano National Park Tour here. I will add  text to the pictures. Madam Pele has many stories . I don’t think I know them all. There is music and incredible dance.

No automatic alt text available.

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The Internet of Things!

child Headhttps://www.nist.gov/topics/internet-things-iot

The Internet of Things has been around for a while. The knowledge of it has not. Some of us laughed when Alexa was introduced on SNL because we understood that most people were not ready for her or SIRI.

What is Alexa and what does it do?
Amazon Echo (shortened and referred to as Echo) is a brand of smart speakers developed by Amazon.com. The devices connect to the voice-controlled intelligent personal assistant service Alexa, which responds to the name “Alexa“. This “wake word” can be changed by the user to “Amazon”, “Echo” or “Computer”.
Smart speakers are two way. They intake information and pass it back to a network.
People started paying attention outside of industry when this happened.

Teddy Bear gives up personal data

Privacy people raised the alarm but educators were not ready for IoT. Here is why privacy people ran up the red flag. Privacy Concerns about AI, Mattel

Security concept: Privacy on digital background

Security concept: pixellated words Privacy on digital background, 3d render

IoT – from Internet of Things to Internet of Transformation

Virtually everyone knows that IoT stands for (the) Internet of Things and that it has something to do with connected things.
Yet, what can you do with “it”? What is IoT really about? And what does it have to do with transformation?

IoT is the popular acronym for Internet of Things. The IoT refers to the networking of physical devices such as objects and devices which are attached to living creatures, including humans.

These objects contain embedded technologies, can be uniquely identified via an IP address, and are able to sense, gather, collect and send data.

The potential and reality of the IoT does not lie in the ability to connect IoT-enabled objects nor in the embedded technologies and electronics such as sensors, actuators and connectivity capabilities. It resides in the ways the IoT is used to leverage the insights from data, automate, digitize, digitalize, optimize and in more mature stages transform processes, business models and even industries in a scope of digital transformation.

source

https://www.i-scoop.eu/

The Internet of Things Cybersecurity Improvement Act’: Unlocking the Value of the Industrial Internet of Things – Moving from Promise to Reality 

The Internet of Things Cybersecurity Improvement Act was introduced by a bipartisan group of Senators in August 2017 in response to several attacks spread via networks of infected IoT devices over the past year. The bill, which has been widely welcomed by stakeholders on all sides, is an attempt by legislators to establish minimum security requirements for federal procurements of connected devices, and work towards addressing the significant security challenges posed by the release and spread of insecure internet-connected devices. This session will explore the bill’s requirements and aims, and debate whether it goes far enough. It will look at areas in which possible clarifications may be needed; and examine challenges and opportunities that it may create for stakeholders on both federal agencies procuring goods and services; and the companies providing them. Ultimately, it will look at the extent to which it is likely to meet its objective of helping to create a more secure digital environment.

• What impact is the bill likely to have in helping to address security challenges posed by IoT and does the bill go far enough to ensure Internet of things devices used by federal agencies consistently meet enhanced security standards?
• What does the bill consider as the definition of ‘Connected devices’ and the scope of research exemption, and is there any clarification needed here? Does the legislation need to look further into mandating user behavior?
• What technical and competitive opportunities would this bill, if enacted, concretely represent to manufacturers of connected devices? What challenges may they face and how could these be overcome?
• How can it be ensured that the bill doesn’t hinder innovation in the IoT space? Should a country of origin-based limitation on purchase and storage be considered?
• What support may vendors need to make the required investments to further secure their IoT offerings?
• To what extent will the challenges related to the practical enforcement of this legislation be addressed?
• Although the proposed bill only applies to technology firms and contractors selling products to federal agencies, to what extent can it be expected to extend into private sector guidelines moving forward?
• What opportunities does the bill represent for cyber researchers and white-hat hackers, and to what extent will further cooperation between researchers and vendors be encouraged? Show less

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/06/opinion/sunday/allison-arieff-the-internet-of-way-too-many-things.html?action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=opinion-c-col-left-region&region=opinion-c-col-left-region&WT.nav=opinion-c-col-left-region&_r=1

 

“Connected devices using the Internet of Health Things are beginning to transform healthcare delivery. By introducing more connectivity, remote monitoring and information gathering, IoHT can encourage better use of healthcare resources, more informed decisions, a reduction in inefficiencies or waste and the empowerment of health consumers.”

 

IoT is a concept based on creating systems that intera ct with the physical world using networked  entities (e.g., sensors, actuators, information resources, people).

 There can be confusion around the meaning of the term “ Internet of Things ” for a variety of  reasons. They include: the cross -cutting aspect of IoT (specifically with respect to application  domains) ; the multitude of stakeholders involved in IoT and their specific use cases ; the complexity of IoT ; and the rapidly changing technology supporting IoT.  While there is no universal definition of IoT, common elements exist among the many high- level 325 definitions and descriptions for IoT. The Internet of Things consists of two foundational concepts:  IoT components are connected by a network providing the potential for a many -to-many 330 relationship between components (this network capability may or may not be TCP/IP based) ; and some of the IoT components have sensors and actuators that allow the components to interact with the physical world

NIST created a video for use and learn about it and cybersecurity.

 

nist-cybersecurity-and-internet-things

What is the Internet of Things?dtn-ssi

The Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data.Wikipedia

Internet of Things is a concept that increasingly takes more relevance.

It is a term that we hear constantly. Internet of Things or IoT, is an abstract concept but has been gaining quite a popularity in recent months. Everyday things that connect to the Internet, is a simple concept but in reality is much more than that.

If we were to give a definition of IoT probably better to say that it’s a network that connects physical objects to the Internet

IoT is not new at all. For about 30 years we have been working with the idea of making everyday objects more interactive.internet-things-iot-word-icons-globe-world-map-dotted-51758679

 

Beginner’s Guide for Understanding the Internet of Things

 

internet-of-things

America’s Schools are Profoundly Unequal! A Whole lot of Education Information

 

15421006_10154621210371327_254228138370067503_nHave you seen?

The report on Unequal Schools from the Civil Rights Commission

“The federal government must take bold action to address inequitable funding in our nation’s public schools.”

So begins a list of recommendations released Thursday by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, an independent, bipartisan agency created by Congress in 1957 to investigate civil rights complaints. Thursday’s report comes after a lengthy investigation into how America’s schools are funded and why so many that serve poor and minority students aren’t getting the resources they say they need.

The 150-page report, titled “Public Education Funding Inequity: In An Era Of Increasing Concentration Of Poverty and Resegregation,” reads like a footnoted walking tour through the many ways America’s education system fails vulnerable students — beginning with neighborhood schools that remain deeply segregated and continuing into classrooms where too many students lack access to skilled teachers, rigorous courses and equitable school funding.

“This report excavates the enduring truism that American public schooling is, and has been, profoundly unequal in the opportunity delivered to students, the dollars spent to educate students, and the determinations of which students are educated together,” writes the commission’s chair, Catherine Lhamon.

History lesson

The first two-thirds of the commission’s report is essentially a history lesson on the decades-old fight over equitable school funding, so we’ll start there, too. The fight arguably began in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education and the Supreme Court’s decision that “separate but equal” schools for black and white students were anything but equal.

In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson waded into the debate, arguing that the federal government should send money to school districts that serve low-income families. Congress agreed, creating Title I. In the 2014-15 school year, states received more than $14 billion in Title I money.

To this day, though, states are all over the map when it comes to how equitably they spend their own money in schools. The problem was baked into the system from the beginning, with local property taxes being an important driver of both school funding and of inequities in school funding.

“This is America,” writes Karen Narasaki, a member of the commission. “Every child deserves a quality education that does not depend on their ZIP code.”

To make that happen — many states now use state tax revenue to try to even out those local imbalances, some more effectively than others.

We are a  ‘Nation of Opportunity, and the present time points us toward the future.

There are groups that hope to change the way we learn by mentoring, by sharing, by participatory involvement at national, regional and local levels. School boards are often the passport to change. The National Science Foundation funds innovation and research.

Communities within groups like ISTE and CoSN help to drive change.They publish guides like

No Fear Coding

Computational Thinking Across the K-5 Curriculum

he people most affected by the inequality may not be a member or these groups trying to help them.

CoSN the Consortium for School Networking has action for members and reports such as this as well. AccessibilityToolkit.  

CoSn also publishes the Horizon Report on an annual basis.

NMC Horizon Report 

2017 Higher Education Edition

The NMC Horizon Report > 2017 Higher Education Edition is a collaborative effort between the NMC and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI). This 14th edition describes annual findings from the NMC Horizon Project, an ongoing research project designed to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have an impact on learning, teaching, and creative inquiry in education. Six key trends, six significant challenges, and six important developments in educational technology are placed directly in the context of their likely impact on the core missions of universities and colleges. The three key sections of this report constitute a reference and straightforward technology-planning guide for educators, higher education leaders, administrators, policymakers, and technologists. It is our hope that this research will help to inform the choices that institutions are making about technology to improve, support, or extend teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in higher education across the globe. All of the topics were selected by an expert panel that represented a range of backgrounds and perspectives. View the work that produced the report on the official project wiki.
CIRCL  takes us into the future using Cyberlearning.

New to Cyberlearning? Get started here.

New technologies change what and how people learn. Informed by learning science, cyberlearning is the use of new technology to create effective new learning experiences that were never possible or practical before. The cyberlearning movement advances learning of important content by:

  • Applying scientific insights about how people learn
  • Leveraging emerging technologies
  • Designing transformative learning activities
  • Engaging teachers and other practitioners
  • Measuring deeper learning outcomes
  • Emphasizing continuous improvement

 

I am a pioneer in technology and use these sites to keep up. What do you and your communities use?

                                              What about ACCESS?

While the nation continues to make progress in broadband deployment, many Americans still lack access to advanced, high-quality voice, data, graphics and video offerings, especially in rural areas and on Tribal lands, according to the 2016 Broadband Progress Report adopted by the Federal Communications Commission.

Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 requires the FCC to report annually on whether advanced telecommunications capability “is being deployed to all Americans in a reasonable and timely fashion,” and to take “immediate action” if it is not.  Congress defined advanced telecommunications capability as “high-quality” capability that allow users to “originate and receive high-quality voice, data, graphics, and video” services.

In the Report, the Commission determines that advanced telecommunications requires access to both fixed and mobile broadband services because more Americans use mobile services and devices to access the Internet for activities like navigation, communicating with family and friends and on social media, and receiving timely news updates away from home.  The Commission also retains the existing speed benchmark of 25 Mbps download/3 Mbps upload (25 Mbps/3 Mbps) for fixed services, but finds that the current record is insufficient to set an appropriate speed benchmark for mobile service.

While the Commission finds that it is reasonable to apply the same speed benchmarks to all fixed services, including fixed terrestrial and fixed satellite broadband service, the Commission continues to observe different technical capabilities and adoption patterns between fixed terrestrial and fixed satellite service.  Because no fixed satellite broadband service meets the 25 Mbps/3Mbps speed threshold as of the reporting period, the Report does not address the question of whether fixed satellite broadband services meeting this speed threshold would be considered to provide advanced telecommunications capability.

Significant progress in broadband deployment has been made, due in part to the Commission’s action to support broadband such as through its Universal Service programs. However, the Commission finds that these advances are not enough to ensure that advanced telecommunications capability is being deployed to all Americans in a timely way.

Key findings include the following:

  • 10 percent of all Americans (34 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps service.
  • 39 percent of rural Americans (23 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps.
    • By contrast, only 4 percent of urban Americans lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps broadband.
    • The availability of fixed terrestrial services in rural America continues to lag behind urban America at all speeds:  20 percent lack access even to service at 4 Mbps/1 Mbps, down only 1 percent from 2011, and 31 percent lack access to 10 Mbps/1 Mbps, down only 4 percent from 2011.
  • 41 percent of Americans living on Tribal lands (1.6 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps broadband
    • 68 percent living in rural areas of Tribal lands (1.3 million people) lack access.
  • 66 percent of Americans living in U.S. territories (2.6 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps broadband.
    • 98 percent of those living in rural territorial areas (1.1 million people) lack access.
  • Americans living in rural and urban areas adopt broadband at similar rates where 25 Mbps/ 3 Mbps service is available, 28 percent in rural areas and 30 percent in urban areas.
  • While an increasing number of schools have high-speed connections, approximately 41 percent of schools, representing 47 percent of the nation’s students, lack the connectivity to meet the Commission’s short-term goal of 100 Mbps per 1,000 students/staff.

This Report concludes that more work needs to be done by the private and public sectors to expand robust broadband to all Americans in a timely way.  The FCC will continue working to accelerate broadband deployment and to remove barriers to infrastructure investment, in part by direct subsidies, and in part by identifying and helping to reduce potential obstacles to deployment, competition, and adop

What about the use of the Internet in Rural Areas?

President Donald J. Trump signed on Monday two orders aimed at improving internet speeds in some of the country’s hardest-to-connect areas, a move he described as “the first step to expand access to broadband internet in rural America.”

The first executive order aims to make it easier for internet service providers to locate broadband infrastructure on federal land and buildings in rural parts of the country. The order notes that one of the consequences of slow, expensive internet service is that it hinders schools’ ability to “enrich student learning with digital tools.”

I found these items after a long search. Many of these articles are lost to parents, communities and interested advocates. The news is full of other things. Maybe these groups have to advocate for education as the press does not usually share important information, like the Horizon Report, and ISTE Standards.

startup-photos.jpg

 

Parents and communities often have their own definition of what works in education and they may not be up to date on the reality of change within education. This report from the Civil Rights Commission probably is not seen by those without access to computers and technology.

An illustration picture shows projection of binary code on man holding aptop computer in Warsaw

An illustration picture shows a projection of binary code on a man holding a laptop computer, in an office in Warsaw June 24, 2013. REUTERS/Kacper Pempel

What do you know about Schools and the use of technology?What you know might be gated by the school or community in which you live and learn.

This is a briefing that should be shared by schools, parents, communities and school boards. Education-Inequity.pdf.

internet-of-things

There are a lot of people who do not have a problem with screen time. They have little access to technology. A new group is looking to find a way to use CRA funding to help the communities most impacted by lack of connectivity.

There are a lot of people who have a screen or two, but who do not use the technology effectively.

Sometimes there are programs funded within a community by groups trying to erase the digital divide.  HUD has a program that is supposed to help make the change. Connect Home.  What might be a group within your community that is trying to solve the problem?

Connect Home is a public-private collaboration to narrow the digital divide for families with school-age children who live in HUD-assisted housing.

Connect Home creates a platform for community leaders, local governments, nonprofit organizations, and private industry to join together and produce locally-tailored solutions for narrowing the digital divide. Through these stakeholders’ specific commitments to provide free or low-cost broadband access, devices, and digital literacy training, Connect Home extends affordable access to low-income families, ensuring that high-speed Internet follows our children from their classrooms back to their homes.

                                     How Connected is Your Community?

Here is a map to check your connectivity.

How are You Connected? ACCESS MAP

TECHNOLOGY HELPS US TO UNDERSTAND THE WORLD

pexels-photo-265672.png

STEM? There are free resources at Concord.org.

Groundbreaking and deeply digital learning
In recent months the use of technology has helped us to see disasters and to use big data to visualize.

This is an ESRI Story map of the recent weather event in the US.

Does your educational community take advantage of free resources, mentoring to schools and teachers in the ESRI Space?

What Can We Learn about the World using GIS?

There are free online mapping resources for schools.

Hurricane-Irma-1054595

GIS, Geoliteracy, and ESRI..What are you waiting for?

This year the changes in climate, the storms and devastation have caused us all to take time to pay attention to weather, to where places are and to what a disaster map is in many places. You should have also learned how and why storms are tracked.

People all of a sudden were worrying and watching the weatherman or a climate mapping system for news about fires, floods, the hurricanes. ESRI provided story maps and data for all to see. Problem? Many students  in the US do not study or use resources that are available free for schools.

During the Hurricane emergencies we could use this map.  There were individual story maps that you could use during the hurricanes, to learn to read, see , big data define the hurricane.Hurricane Harvey  , Hurricane Irma, Hurricane-Irma-1054595

Hurricane Maria

http://gis.ruekert-mielke.com/2017/09/14/esri-story-map-of-hurricane-harvey/

There were also story maps of the fires.

You can learn using ESRI resources.

What is a disaster that is likely to happen in your area? What is the history of weather in your area? What actions should you be ready to take?

 

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There are lots of fabulous tools that we can use to learn about Earth Science. One of my favorite is Science on a Sphere. You can learn about it here. SOS  There are lots of locations where you can go and participate in an SOS program. There is also SOS Lite. That is a download that you can install on your computer. Here is the link. SOS Lite.

Climate Models?

What Is a Climate Model?

Global climate models (GCMs) use math – a  lot of math – to describe how the atmosphere, the oceans, the land, living thingsice, and energy from the Sunaffect each other and Earth’s climate. Thousands of climate researchers use global climate models to better understand how global changes such as increasing greenhouses gases or decreasing Arctic sea ice will affect the Earth. The models are used to look hundreds of years into the future, so that we can predict how our planet’s climate will likely change.

There are various types of climate models. Some focus on certain things that affect climate such as the atmosphere or the oceans. Models that look at few variables of the climate systemmay be simple enough to run on a personal computer. Other models take into account many factors of the atmospherebiospheregeospherehydrosphere, and cryosphere to model the entire Earth system. They take into account the interactions and feedbacks between these different parts of the planet. Earth is a complex place and so many of these models are very complex too. They include so many math calculations that they must be run on supercomputers, which can do the calculations quickly. All climate models must make some assumptions about how the Earth works, but in general, the more complex a model, the more factors it takes into account, and the fewer assumptions it makes. At the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), researchers work with complex models of the Earth’s climate system. Their Community Climate System Model is so complex that it requires about three trillion math calculations to simulate a single day on planet Earth. It can take thousands of hours for the supercomputer to run the model. The model output, typically many gigabytes large, is analyzed by researchers and compared with other model results and with observations and measurement data.

NESTA  Souce

There are currently several other complex global climate models that are used to predict future climatic change. The most robust models are compared by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) as they summarize predictions about future climate change.

There are tools that are used to predict weather and to define possibilities that are data models. There is a European Model, and a US Model which we learned from with all of the storms, and fires, in the last several months.

The European Climate Model

  • produces numerical weather forecasts and monitor the Earth-system;
  • carries out scientific and technical research to improve forecast skill;
  • maintains an archive of meteorological data.

To deliver this core mission, the Center provides:

  • twice-daily global numerical weather forecasts;
  • air quality analysis;
  • atmospheric composition monitoring;
  • climate monitoring;
  • ocean circulation analysis;
  • hydrological prediction.

They also provide advanced training to scientific staff in our Member and Co-operating States and assist the World Meteorological Organization with its programs. We make 25% of the supercomputing facilities available to Member States.

The US Climate Model is here.

https://www.climate.gov/teaching And you can look here

How reliable are computer models of the Earth’s climate?

Climate models are used to analyze past changes in the long-term averages and variations in temperature, precipitation, and other climate indicators, and to make projections of how these trends may change in the future. Today’s climate models do a good job at reproducing the broad features of the present climate and changes in climate, including the significant warming that has occurred over the last 50 years. Hence, climate models can be useful tools for measuring the changes in the factors that drive changes in climate, including heat-trapping gases, particulates from human and volcanic sources, and solar variability.

Scientists have amassed a vast body of knowledge regarding the physical world. However, unlike many areas of science, scientists who study the Earth’s climate cannot build a “control Earth” and conduct experiments on this Earth in a lab. To experiment with the Earth, scientists instead use this accumulated knowledge to build climate models, or “virtual Earths.” In studying climate change, these virtual Earths serve as an important way to integrate different kinds of knowledge of how the climate system works. These models can be used to test scientific understanding of the response of the Earth’s climate to past changes (such as the transition from the last glacial maximum to our current warm interglacial period) as well as to develop projections of future changes (such as the response of the Earth’s climate to human activities).

Climate models are based on mathematical and physical equations representing the fundamental laws of nature and the many processes that affect the Earth’s climate system. When the atmosphere, land, and ocean are divided up into small grid cells and these equations are applied to each grid cell, the models can capture the evolving patterns of atmospheric pressures, winds, temperatures, and precipitation. Over longer timeframes, these models simulate wind patterns, high and low pressure systems, and other weather characteristics that make up climate.

Some important physical processes are represented by approximate relationships because the processes are not fully understood, or they are at a scale that a model cannot directly represent. Examples include clouds, convection, and turbulent mixing of the atmosphere, for which important processes are much smaller than the resolution of current models. These approximations lead to uncertainties in model simulations of climate.

Climate models require enormous computing resources, especially to capture the geographical details of climate. Today’s most powerful supercomputers are enabling climate scientists to more thoroughly examine the effects of climate change in ways that were impossible just five years ago. Over the next decade, computer speeds are predicted to increase another 100 fold or more, permitting even more details of the climate system to be explored.

.Source

ucar_model_inputResources for schools.

 

 

 

 

 

Digging in Dirt- The Pleasures of Archaeology

Now and Then

https://serc.si.edu/projects/archaeology-storymap/archaeology-storymap

I dig archaeology.  I used to think about it all the time.Teaching grades that explored ancient cultures and reading David McCauley’s books, and exploring cultures with students was exciting.

Pyramid , Through concise text and richly detailed black and white illustrations we come to know the philosophy of life and death in ancient Egypt.

I wanted to be an Egyptian archaeologist, and then I went to Egypt. Hot, hot, hot and then hot. There was fun in observing recent excavations and some new sharing of finding. A surprise to me was that the interior of tombs and structures was so beautiful and low.

I am tall so I had to bend down a lot to keep from striking my head.The blocks used to build the pyramid are almost as tall as me. The air was musty and a surprise was the inscriptions inside the walls of the tombs. Hard to photograph.

When you go to a site, there is the weather, the wind, and many steps to get to a viewing point. Egypt was difficult because the heat  made me thirsty too. But it was exciting to be there. I actually learned a lot more about Egyptian Archaeology in the British museum.

Following Catherwood, you would think that there were few sites in Central America. But the jungle uncovers various sites now and then. Archaeology there is interesting. The Mayan Sites are there to be climbed and excavated. The sites are usually on high ground as the communication was by fire and shell horns. On one site I could see all the way to Guatemala. Climbing was difficult. There were no safety bars and getting down from some of the Mayan sites was tricky. Sometimes I would only go halfway up . Under the temples there are royal seats and places to explore and sometimes a scorpion or interesting insects.

 

There are even more sites to examine and learn about.

 

 

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https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRd0EaW7pz01Y0FIEMQ0a18aDo1JRJSId3tBz7IMKRv4g_h2islxw

 

“Archaeology is the study of the ancient and recent human past through material remains. It is a subfield of anthropology, the study of all human culture. From million-year-old fossilized remains of our earliest human ancestors in Africa, to 20th century buildings in present-day New York City, archaeology analyzes the physical remains of the past in pursuit of a broad and comprehensive understanding of human culture.” Source

I actually participated in a dig in Deia, Mallorca , Spain through an Earthwatch Grant from the Wildcat Foundation. We know about the Beaker people who constructed Sun circles. The most prominent one is in England.

There is archaeology in your backyard. In Southern Maryland we investigated Saint Mary’s City. The Smithsonian Estuary Center, SERC has archaeology for Citizen Scientists too.

Of all the artifacts Native Americans of the Chesapeake left behind, the most abundant at SERC are oyster shell middens. Essentially early trash piles, middens are clusters of shells that Native Americans and some early settlers discarded after eating the meat inside. They can endure for millennia. SERC has 31 recorded oyster middens on its property, the oldest dating back to 1250 B.C.E.

There are many places to study Archaeology.

Here and There

These middens have led to some surprising discoveries about Native Americans’ past, and their environmental legacy today. It was once a common belief that Native Americans and the first settlers rarely ate blue crabs, because blue crab remains seldom turned up in archaeological sites. But after a more thorough investigation with scientists at the National Museum of Natural History, SERC scientists discovered blue crab remains were far more common in shell middens than previously thought. They also showed that blue crab remains are fragile and do not preserve very well, except for the tips of their claws.  The claw tips showed that not only did Native American catch and eat blue crabs in addition to oysters, but they caught substantially larger crabs than typically seen today. Furthermore, unlike most modern trash piles, oyster middens have positive environmental impacts still felt in the present. Soils with oyster middens beneath them contain more nutrients, and host a greater diversity of native flora, than soils without them.

Many questions remain: Why is there a 900-year gap in the ages of oyster middens around the Rhode River, spanning 800 B.C.E. to 150 C.E.? Did Native Americans only use the property as seasonal fishing and hunting grounds, or were there ever any permanent villages? Researchers continue to sift through the remains in search of answers.

Of all the artifacts Native Americans of the Chesapeake left behind, the most abundant at SERC are oyster shell middens. Essentially early trash piles, middens are clusters of shells that Native Americans and some early settlers discarded after eating the meat inside. They can endure for millennia. SERC has 31 recorded oyster middens on its property, the oldest dating back to 1250 B.C.E.

 

TEACHER FELLOWSHIPS

Earthwatch is looking for teachers who are passionate about teaching, excited about making a difference with their time and talents, and interested in conservation, environmental sustainability, and lifelong learning.

By engaging teachers, Earthwatch strives to inspire and build a future generation of leaders who value the environment and prioritize it in their everyday choices.

When teachers return from the field, they share their experiences with students, colleagues, family, and friends through stories, lessons, and community action. Fellows truly embody the Earthwatch mission and are critical to our success.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kids in a Network Learning Science, Geography, GIS, Computational Thinking and all of that Jazz ..it worked!!

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Many people embrace what is called STEM at this time. There was SMET before there was STEM.

There was a time when science was pushed aside and people who dared to advocate it were not in the right political space. We suffered but continued the practice of good teaching.

We had our champions, and one of them was Dr. Robert Tinker of Concord.org who got great funding for a number of revolutionary programs and projects and many of them were for K -12.

His projects were much needed to change teaching and learning .

More alphabet soup.

You may ask what is TERC?

For more than fifty years, TERC  introduced millions of students throughout the United States to the exciting and rewarding worlds of math and science learning. Led by a group of experienced, forward-thinking math and science professionals, TERC is an independent, research-based organization dedicated to engaging and inspiring all students through stimulating curricula and programs designed to develop the knowledge and skills they need to ask questions, solve problems, and expand their opportunities.

 

What is really important is that there was extensive broadening engagement and the vision that TERC and Robert Tinker had was an immersive imagining of a future in which learners from diverse communities engaged in creative, rigorous, and reflective inquiry as an integral part of their lives—a future where teachers and students alike are members of vibrant communities where questioning, problem solving, and experimentation are commonplace.

This ideational scaffolding worked.

One of the projects was the NGS Kids Network , standards-based, online science curriculum that allowed students from around the world to investigate topics and share their findings.

Students explored real-world subjects by doing exactly what scientists do: conducting experiments, analyzing data, and sharing results with peers.

You will remember the climate march and the scientists march. With Bob Tinker we marched with our fingers and minds exploring real world science and the ideas are still being used and referenced.

There are pieces of this work that are still relevant. There was an extensive set of resources for teachers at each topic.

You can explore the Unit TRASH here.

You can explore the topic “What’s in Our Water?” here.

Here is the background for water. 

You can explore SOLAR ENERGY here. It has been updated.

HISTORY

A National Geographic Summer Institute was where Concord.org was introduced to me. I believe I met Dr. Tinker however, at the NSTA conference. or at the George Lucas Educational Foundation in a round table discussion.  There we learned about probes. The way we worked was revolutionary in science , and we true pioneers got some push back. We had Dr. Tinker as a resource and the information was free. The promise of the Internet for all has never happened , but if you could get on the Information Highway, well, Concord was there for you.

 

 

niiac

If you ever taught a National Geographic Kidsnetwork Program and did it well ,you know that it changed the face of teaching and learning. Here is a research report that explains the way in which it worked.

The National Geographic Kids Network

REFERENCE: TERC. (1990). The National Geographic Kids Network: Year 4 Final Annual Report. Cambridge, MA: Author.

In conjunction with the National Geographic Society, TERC created The National Geographic Kids Network as a resource for improving elementary science and geography instruction in classrooms around the world. Since its inception in 1986, more than a quarter of a million students in over 7,500 classrooms had then used the network to collaborate on science and geography projects ranging from the study of solar energy to acid rain.( old data)

The primary goal of the National Geographic Kids Network was to promote science and discovery in elementary classrooms by combining hands-on science, geography, and computer technologies with telecommunications activities.

GIS 1The topics were the beginning of real science study for many students.


The National Geographic Kids Network includes seven 8-week curriculum units focusing on “increasing the time spent on inquiry-oriented, hands-on science instruction, strengthening science process and data analysis skills, raising public awareness of the value and feasibility of appropriate science instruction, and publishing and widely disseminating curricular materials that further these goals.” While students research, collect, analyze, and share data with their peers they also problem solve and collaborate with students at other schools. In addition, the network also features a scientist who works with students electronically to evaluate their data, make comments, and offer suggestions. The seven 8-week units include:

  • Hello!  This was a special introductory unit that let us learn how to use project based learning and collaborate with other classes.
  • Solar Energy
  • Acid Rain
  • What Are We Eating?
  • What’s in Our Water?
  • Too Much Trash?
  • Weather in Action

The beginning unit was very special.

Students and teachers and community collaborated and shared , giving information, history, geography and data about where they lived. They got mail. This was a personalized way  , it was a pre-social media of talking with and learning with students in other parts of the world.

How excited my students were to link with a school in Moscow, Russia, or to figure out what animals were pets in some places of the world that we considered pests.

 

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For those of us who used the units , the task of classroom management was quite different from that faced by teachers employing the traditional instructional methods of lecture, discussion, and seat work. Geography was a huge factor in the work. Sometimes there was application of the arts, and yes, there was purposeful reading and writing. The face of the working classroom was changed. Extensive resources were shared with teachers.

Students were involved in an inquiry process and reported back to a scientist who helped them analyze their data . There were geographical teams of students sharing information , and collecting data and sometimes telling their stories. I was a teacher of the Gifted, but I was able to use technology to transition into being a classroom teacher for all. Parents and community members were excited about meaningful  uses of technology.

With NGS Kidsnetwork, students spend the majority of their time working on their own or in small groups collecting and doing research.

Teachers often spend their time participating in projects as peers , with community interface of experts, parents helping with the data.

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Broadening Engagement, Howard West!!

The story of this project was hidden in the political machinations going forward in Black History Month.

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Action speaks louder than words.

I am one of several people who have been involved in actions with those working in social justice and digital equity to do Broadening Engagement that will help to change the face of computing.

This is ideational scaffolding and a dream come true for us who worried about ways to get HBCU’s and other minority serving institutions involved in significant ways in the technology world. For us the Google project is a dream come true.

They said

“We envisioned this program with bold outcomes in mind—to advance a strategy that leverages Howard’s high quality faculty and Google’s expertise.”

Coding

Google Finds a Way!!

Alphabet Inc.’s GOOGL Google has partnered with Howard University to offer black software engineers a chance to learn from a new program called “Howard West”.

The Problem?The goal of the Broader Engagement (BE) program is to increase the participation of individuals who have been traditionally underrepresented in high performance computing (HPC), including African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and other underrepresented groups around the world, as well as women and people with disabilities.

In Supercomputing the conferences ,the program offers special activities to engage and support a diverse community of experts, newcomers and learners in the conference and in HPC.The BE program had several educational, networking and informational sessions . For many of us, the SC Conference was the only invitation to participate that was well known.

Google sidesteps the usual with a pilot project. Howard West  It’s exciting!!

Here is how it will work.

The first 12-week batch consisting of 25 to 30 juniors and seniors in Howard’s computer science program will commence this summer with numbers expected to increase in future semesters.

Candidates have to apply and get accepted to the program, following which they will receive stipend and school credits.

Howard targets 740 students within the next five years. The broader plan is to extend the program to other historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) going forward.

Here is how it is reported in Atlanta Black Star and the Atlanta Journal and Constitution.

In a push to encourage diversity in the tech world, Google announced Thursday that it was opening a campus for students from Howard University —a historically black college and university (HBCU) — to immerse themselves in the world of coding and engineering at its Silicon Valley headquarters.

The outpost, called “Howard West,” invites rising junior and senior computer science majors to Mountain View, California, for a three-month program where they will work with black Google tech employees, take computer science classes and indulge in Google’s famous perks, such as free food. * The reporter may not have been involved in any of Google’s programs. Food is just a very small part of the amenities.

Tuition will be paid in full by private donors and the university. The students will will receive a summer stipend, and their housing costs will be covered.

The new program launches this summer with a group of 25 computer science majors from Howard.

In addition to expanding the program to other HBCUs in the future, Howard University president Wayne Frederick hopes to retain students in the field who may not have the financial means to continue their studies.

According to the company’s 2016 diversity index, black employees account for just 1 percent of Google’s technology employees and only 2 percent of its overall employees.

Extension of Google’s Residence Program

With the Howard West program, Google is extending its Google in Residence (GIR) program. Under GIR, Google engineers teach on-job skills to students of Howard University and other HBCUs at their own campuses. With more than one third of America’s black computer sciences graduates coming from HBCUs, Google has been partnering with Howard and other HBCUs through Google in Residence (GIR), a program that places Google engineers as faculty at HBCUs. ( Historic Black Colleges and Universities.

The Howard West program will do the same at Google’s Mountain View, CA campus and its teachers include Google engineers and Howard University faculty.

Links

AJC

http://www.ajc.com/news/national/howard-university-campus-open-google-headquarters-train-black-coders/oUOZmXiLcReKY618jC0QdL/

Google Aims at Workplace Diversity with Howard West Program

https://www.yahoo.com/news/google-aims-workplace-diversity-howard-154103412.html

Howard University opens a new campus at the Googleplex ( Google Blog)

https://www.blog.google/topics/diversity/howard-university-opens-new-campus-googleplex/