The New World.. the Old World met.. It was not all about Columbus!! How About those Spices

We are getting ready to “celebrate ?” Columbus Day.

ships_waiting_to_sail_out-t2

Most people have not been lucky enough to get a good perspective on what happened when the two worlds met. I was a teacher learner at the Smithsonian when the Quincentennial happened and in planning, they dug deeply into history that few of us were taught. Teachers in the Metropolitan DC area were involved in the workshops and the planning. We worked with Julie Margolis.

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The main book we used to form ideas was “The Columbian Exchange:Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. We had lots of other books, and activities and even a garden that was on the museum grounds and on the grounds of a school.(http://www.jstor.org/stable/3742188?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents) Some of the research papers we studied were included in the book that became the exhibit handbook..

What is Black History

This student is searching for home, which for her is South Africa

Dr. Herman J. Viola , a curator emeritus at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History also gave us several workshops. He , a specialist on the history of the American West,  served as director of the Museum’s National Anthropological Archives in addition to organizing two major exhibitions for the Smithsonian. “Magnificent Voyagers” told the story of the United State Exploring Expedition of 1838-42, and “Seeds of Change” exhibit which we are referencing here, he examined the exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old and the New Worlds as a result of the Christopher Columbus voyages of discovery.

http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/BIOs/BIO_Herman_Bio.html

Columbus, we are told, was no heroic “discoverer” of a New World; as some now see it, he was a villain who pillaged and polluted another old one. At the very least, some say this was not a “discovery.” The approved word for the year of 1992 was “encounter.” There is a whole other discussion on the origins of the maps and the history of map making.

Also, strike the term “celebration.” Many Native Americans viewed the Columbus Quincentenary as more properly an occasion to mourn the destruction of their civilizations. The golden mean, that was taught by the Smithsonian Institution, was the neutral idea of “commemoration.”

The Smithsonian’s “Seeds of Change” exhibition was a marker to think differently about the two world coming together in – the largest ever mounted display by the National Museum of Natural History – it did not focus on Columbus himself, although it refers to his voyages and contained quotations from his journals.

Here is a different take on what Columbus was looking for. Can you say spices?

Do you know that this is a different way of thinking about why Columbus went to the “Indies”

http://education.nationalgeographic.com/video/price-of-pepper/

And here is a map0d0ae1e3-f061-4e7e-a9ee-348d1bdd6992

http://education.nationalgeographic.com/thisday/oct12/columbus-makes-landfall-caribbean/

The theme of the “Seeds of Change” at the Smithsonian was the biological and cultural exchanges that transformed two old worlds into one new one – a popularization of ideas introduced two decades ago by historian Alfred W. Crosby Jr. in his book.

There is a darker view of Columbus , presented here..http://www.understandingprejudice.org/nativeiq/weather.htm Everyone does not agree about the cultural exchange and encounter.

                                                Elements of Change

Often discussed were the horse, tomato, potato, corn and disease. ( tobacco was not mentioned, Slavery was inserted).

The five ``seeds`` that Columbus sowed on both sides of the Atlantic with his voyages to the new world that were presented were  sugar, corn, the potato, disease and the horse, Margolis told us.

“The transfer of these items changed the world,“ Corn, for example, was unknown to Columbus and the rest of the world.

mural_indian

In 1493, when corn was first exported to Europe, people there fed it to livestock, thinking it unfit for human consumption. But by 1700, corn became a staple, especially in Africa, where it contributed to a population growth that in turn fed the slave trade to America. Think sugar cane, rum, and the triangle of slavery.

Triangle_Trade

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The horse, too was depicted, as a seed of change when the Spanish used it to conquer the Americas. Horses roamed America in prehistoric times, but were killed off during the Ice Age; Columbus reintroduced them to the New World, to which they were well adapted.Horses, for example, are depicted as having increased Indian wealth and leisure time, while inspiring an array of crafts and clothing. But their use by Indian societies also is said by some to have promoted contact, competition and warfare among tribes.

tomato-varieties-header

.The Tomato http://www.tomato-cages.com/tomato-history.html

Margolis pointed out to us that Italian cuisine with its tomato sauces could not have come into being without the American tomato brought back to Europe by Columbus. A 6- by 8-foot sculpture was in the exhibit, “Spaghetti Meets Tomato,“ by artist Roark Gourley of Laguna Beach, Calif., shows a whimsical, climbing tomato plant towering over a red-and-white checked tablecloth and an array of common Italian-American dishes.“`Spaghetti Meets Tomato

Spag_tom_layers_2007

“I had tried different things, none of which I liked,” Gourley said. “I had a food fight between Columbus and a kid that didn’t work out. I kept tinkering with it until the idea of spaghetti and tomato, which is so simple, hit me.”The finished piece looked to be constructed entirely of food, but is deceptively intricate in its design. The spaghetti noodles are made of a resin-glossed clothes line, the cheese of sliced-up rubberbands and rice made of real spaghetti noodles

When we visited we had a list of the foods from the New World and a list of Old World Food.

It was fun to make a menu using only foods from one list.

For other readings that cast a different light on the importance of the Columbian Voyages read this book ” Precious Cargo” The Author says

“The discovery of the Americas was a watershed event for food that forever changed history and triggered unforeseen advances in agriculture, enterprise, and commerce that allowed the development of the modern world. Admittedly, this progress came with horrendous problems, like slavery and the destruction of indigenous societies and species, but I don’t believe it serves any useful purpose to make moral judgments about historical events. The purpose of Precious Cargo, is simply to tell the many stories of how and why western hemisphere foods and crops conquered the rest of the world and saved it from not only culinary boredom, but mass starvation as well”

http://www.dave-dewitt.com/portfolio-item/precious-cargo-how-foods-from-the-americas-changed-the-world/

The Tomato History has origins traced back to the early Aztecs around 700 A.D; therefore it is believed that the tomato is native to the Americas. It was not until around the 16th century that Europeans were introduced to this fruit when the early explorers set sail to discover new lands. Throughout Southern Europe, the tomato was quickly accepted into the kitchen, yet as it moved north, more resistance was apparent. The British, for example, admired the tomato for its beauty, but believe that it was poisonous, as its appearance was similar to that of the wolf peach.

Sugar cane is viewed more harshly still. As visitors enter the darkened section devoted to this fifth “seed,” they suddenly find themselves in the simulated hold of a slave ship. Originally brought from Europe, sugar cane grew even better in the Caribbean, where its production for European use stimulated the slave trade and caused the ravaging of the native terrain, the exhibition argues.

From virgin rain forests to sugar cane plantations, a diorama re-creating a slave dwelling and narration of an account of slave life by actress Whoopi Goldberg.

indigenous-potatoes-729x505

New World Foods: corn, potato, tomato, bell pepper, chili pepper, vanilla, tobacco, beans, pumpkin, cassava root, avocado, peanut, pecan , cashew, pineapple, blueberry, sunflower, petunia, black-eyed susan, dahlia, marigold, quinine, wild rice, cacao (chocolate), gourds, and squash.

Here is an indepth game to play to learn a lot more from the NMAI.

          http://www.nmai.si.edu/exhibitions/infinityofnations/culturequest/

When Christopher Columbus arrived on the Bahamian Island of Guanahani (San Salvador) in 1492, he encountered the Taíno people, whom he described in letters as “naked as the day they were born.” The Taíno had complex hierarchical religious, political, and social systems. Skilled farmers and navigators, they wrote music and poetry and created powerfully expressive objects. At the time of Columbus’s exploration, the Taíno were the most numerous indigenous people of the Caribbean and inhabited what are now Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. By 1550, the Taíno were close to extinction, many having succumbed to diseases brought by the Spaniards. Taíno influences survived, however, and today appear in the beliefs, religions, language, and music of Caribbean cultures.

Had horses really been extinct in the Americas until Christopher Columbus shipped them there on his second voyage? they wanted to know.

And was it true that diseases imported by the explorers and conquistadors had decimated as much as 90 percent of the native population?

And why was tobacco not included I assume that it was not politically correct to tell about it.

TOBACCO: The Early History of a New World Crop
Hail thou inspiring plant! Thou balm of life,
Well might thy worth engage two nations’ strife;
Exhaustless fountain of Britannia’s wealth;
Thou friend of wisdom and thou source of health.
-from an early tobacco label

Tobacco, that outlandish weed
It spends the brain, and spoiles the seede
It dulls the spirite, it dims the sight
It robs a woman of her right.

-Dr. William Vaughn, 1617
As these two verses show, tobacco use has long been a controversial subject, considered by turns a vice, a panacea, an economic salvation and a foolish and dangerous habit. However, it was perceived, by the end of the seventeenth century tobacco had become the economic staple of Virginia, easily making her the wealthiest of the 13 colonies by the time of the American Revolution.

The Old World encountered tobacco at the dawn of the European Age of Exploration. On the morning of October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus set foot on a small island in the Bahamas. Believing himself to be off the coast of Asia, the Admiral dressed in his best to meet the local inhabitants. The Arawaks offered him some dried leaves as a token of friendship. Those leaves were tobacco. A few days later, a party from Columbus’ ship docked off the coast of Cuba and witnessed local peoples there smoking tobacco through Y-shaped tubes which they inserted in their noses, inhaling smoke until they lost consciousness.

Source? http://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/tobacco-the-early-history-of-a-new-world-crop.htm

Disease– Controversial subject ….

The exhibition’s section on disease included fascinating pre-Columbian sculptures from Peru’s Moche culture, which for some reason (we never learn why) excelled in the depiction of medical deformities. There was a case devoted to the argument that, in an exception from the more common transfer of infections from East to West, syphilis may have been brought back to Europe by Columbus’ crew. No space, however, is allotted to countervailing theories, including the notion that Europeans might at one time have misdiagnosed syphilis as leprosy. Discussions continue about the effects of disease.

Wikipedia

European exploration of tropical areas was aided by the New World discovery of quinine, the first effective treatment for malaria. Europeans suffered from this disease, but some indigenous populations had developed at least partial resistance to it. In Africa, resistance to malaria has been associated with other genetic changes among sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants that can cause sickle cell anemia.[1]:164

Before regular communication had been established between the two hemispheres, the varieties of domesticated animals and infectious diseases that jumped to humans, such assmallpox, were strikingly more numerous in the Old World than in the New. Many had migrated west across Eurasia with animals or people, or were brought by traders from Asia, so diseases of two continents were suffered by all occupants. While Europeans and Asians were affected by the Eurasian diseases, their endemic status in those continents over centuries resulted in many people gaining acquired immunity.

By contrast, “Old World” diseases had a devastating effect when introduced to Native American populations via European carriers, as the people in the Americas had no naturalimmunity to the new diseases. Measles caused many deaths. The smallpox epidemics are believed to have caused the largest death tolls among Native Americans, surpassing any wars[13] and far exceeding the comparative loss of life in Europe due to the Black Death.[1]:164 It is estimated that upwards of 80–95 percent of the Native American population died in these epidemics within the first 100–150 years following 1492. Many regions in the Americas lost 100%.[1]:165

Similarly, yellow fever is thought to have been brought to the Americas from Africa via the Atlantic slave trade. Because it was endemic in Africa, many people there had acquired immunity. Europeans suffered higher rates of death than did African-descended persons when exposed to yellow fever in Africa and the Americas, where numerous epidemics swept the colonies beginning in the 17th century and continuing into the late 19th century.

Debate on the origins of syphilis has been raging for centuries. New genetic evidence supports the theory that Christopher Columbus brought syphilis to Europe from the New World. According to the study, genetic analysis of the syphilis family tree reveals that its closest relative was a South American disease that causes yaws, an infection caused by a sub-species of the same bacterium. [14]

But wait.. there is more.. There was gold, and silver and huge Emeralds… there were ships that took that treasure to Spain. I certainly remember the Emeralds. Probably not as important  as the cocoa bean which made chocolate a choice commodity.

Red Tails, Black Stories.. Two Kinds of American History , Who’s Story?

When I was a little girl dark old men told me stories. . .but in the books that I read, I did not see what they said. So I did not believe most of them. I would listen politely, and remember, but I did not believe them.

I had the whole world to learn about ..I did start out with a reputable book.

Slavery, the Peculiar Institution, by Kenneth M. Stampp

What is Black History

This student is searching for home, which for her is South Africa

Here are a few of the stories….

Tuskegee Airmen

There are many sites about the Tuskegee Airmen. “Tuskegee Airmen” refers to all who were involved in the so-called “Tuskegee Experience”, the Army Air Corps program to train African Americans to fly and maintain combat aircraft. The Tuskegee Airmen included pilots, navigators, bombardiers, maintenance and support staff, instructors, and all the personnel who kept the planes in the air. But who knew to look for them? Most museums in the US have a cost associated with them so how would most people see the information. Here is a museum site.

Some of my friends said that black men flew in the war. He said that they were still teaching people to fly from Croom, Maryland. Now back in the day who would ever think that there were black pilots. They were called Tuskegee Airmen. I found a few pictures at the Smithsonian. There was a picture of Elinore Roosevelt who insisted that they be able to  fly. I have never seen this information in a school history book and I am a teacher of many years.

Bessie  Coleman

Never mind that there was a black woman too, who flew. I first learned of her at a NASA workshop.  And Bessie Coleman? Who ever heard of her. I thought it was just a painting  .I thought she was a singer.

 In 1921, Bessie Coleman became the first black women to gain an international permit to fly. After learning French, she attended the famous flight school, Ecole d’Aviation des Frères Caudron in Northern France. No schools in America would train a black person. She was inspired to fly by the stories of Frenchwomen flyers told by her brother John, who had served in France during World War I. Coleman performed acrobatics in air shows around the country and gave lectures inspiring audiences that included many children. She believed that there was freedom in the skies and would not perform in an air show with a segregated audience. On April 30, 1926, she was killed in an airplane piloted by a William Wills as he flew her over the field of the next day’s air show where she was slated as the star.

Coleman was born in Atlanta, Texas, in 1892 as the tenth of thirteen children. They settled in Waxahachie, Texas, and worked as sharecroppers. Her mother encouraged Bessie’s schooling when she showed an aptitude for math. She eventually moved to Chicago and lived with her brother Walter, a Pullman porter. She became a manicurist and worked in the White Sox barbershop. When she returned from Paris, she also worked as a restaurant manager to save money to purchase an airplane. She was helped in this endeavor by friends who included Edwin Beeman from the chewing gum family and Robert S. Abbott, editor and publisher of the Chicago Defender newspaper.

Her dream to open a flying school was never realized, but several years after her death, black aviators formed a network of Bessie Coleman Aero Clubs. In 1990, a road near Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport was renamed for her and five years later the U.S. Postal Department issued the Bessie Coleman Stamp. She was inducted into the Texas Aviation Hall of Fame in 2000.

Sources:
Elizabeth Coleman, Bessie Coleman: The Brownskin Lady Bird (New York: Garland Publishers, 1994);

A Black Explorer? Matthew Henson

Henson at the poles? My childhood friend ‘s father said he was an explorer. I ran to the library.  We ignored him and that history.But I never found a single thing about it in a book until I went to learn in a summer institute at the National Geographic. There are different divisions within the society. We learned from all.

First I learned about Matthew Henson

Born in Maryland on August 6, 1866, Matthew Henson became an orphan when he was only 11 years old. At age 13, he began working on a ship based in Baltimore, Maryland, as a cabin boy. The ship’s skipper taught Henson to read and write.

In 1890, Henson joined Peary’s first Arctic expedition across the northern tip of Greenland. From June 1891 to August 1902, Henson spent seven years in the Arctic with Peary, covering 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) on dogsleds across northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island, in Canada.

In 1906, after drifting pack ice repeatedly blocked earlier attempts to reach the Pole, Henson and Peary set out again on their new three-masted steamship schooner, the Roosevelt. “It’ll work,” said Henson, “if God, wind, leads, ice, snow, and all the hells of this damned frozen land are willing.” Blizzards and cracking ice sheets forced their return once again, although Peary wrote in his diary, “When my observations were taken … they showed that we had reached 87°6′ north latitude, and had at last beaten the record, for which I thanked God.”

Then on August 18, 1909, Henson and Peary boarded the Roosevelt with 22 Inuit men, 17 Inuit women, 10 children, 246 dogs, 70 tons (64 metric tons) of whale meat from Labrador, the meat and blubber of 50 walruses, hunting equipment, and tons of coal. In February, Henson and Peary departed their anchored ship at Ellesmere Island’s Cape Sheridan, with the Inuit men and 130 dogs working to lay a trail and supplies along the route to the Pole.

Many Inuits admired Henson for his hunting and sled-driving skills, as well as his ability to speak their language. Peary said, “He was more of an Eskimo than some of them.” On April 6, 1909, Henson arrived at Camp Jesup, 89°47′, 45 minutes ahead of Peary, concluding by dead reckoning that he had reached the Pole. Henson greeted Peary, “I think I’m the first man to sit on top of the world.Born in Maryland on August 6, 1866, Matthew Henson became an orphan when he was only 11 years old. At age 13, he began working on a ship based in Baltimore, Maryland, as a cabin boy. The ship’s skipper taught Henson to read and write.

In 1890, Henson joined Peary’s first Arctic expedition across the northern tip of Greenland. From June 1891 to August 1902, Henson spent seven years in the Arctic with Peary, covering 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) on dogsleds across northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island, in Canada.

In 1906, after drifting pack ice repeatedly blocked earlier attempts to reach the Pole, Henson and Peary set out again on their new three-masted steamship schooner, the Roosevelt. “It’ll work,” said Henson, “if God, wind, leads, ice, snow, and all the hells of this damned frozen land are willing.” Blizzards and cracking ice sheets forced their return once again, although Peary wrote in his diary, “When my observations were taken … they showed that we had reached 87°6′ north latitude, and had at last beaten the record, for which I thanked God.”

Then on August 18, 1909, Henson and Peary boarded the Roosevelt with 22 Inuit men, 17 Inuit women, 10 children, 246 dogs, 70 tons (64 metric tons) of whale meat from Labrador, the meat and blubber of 50 walruses, hunting equipment, and tons of coal. In February, Henson and Peary departed their anchored ship at Ellesmere Island’s Cape Sheridan, with the Inuit men and 130 dogs working to lay a trail and supplies along the route to the Pole.

Many Inuits admired Henson for his hunting and sled-driving skills, as well as his ability to speak their language. Peary said, “He was more of an Eskimo than some of them.” On April 6, 1909, Henson arrived at Camp Jesup, 89°47′, 45 minutes ahead of Peary, concluding by dead reckoning that he had reached the Pole. Henson greeted Peary, “I think I’m the first man to sit on top of the world.

Some of the men who lived in my block told a different tale. They said they helped to dig the tunnel. Since we are not talking about John Henry , who was black, or black diamonds( coal) This information is hard to find and annotate. Much of it is classified. Explore this on your own. I went to school with a grandchild of Matthew Henson. No one ever mentioned his grandfather’s name, ever.

I am a descendant of Thomas Jefferson, My friend told me!

I was dating a guy in Petersburg, Virginia. As we got serious about the relationship he told me that he was a descendant of Thomas Jefferson. This was before all the Sally Hemmings stories and all, and being from Virginia I knew that the politics of permission would not allow such a liaison no matter what. Slave women had been burned and or shunned because of this. Before Obama became president there was simply the idea that if you had one drop of black blood that you were black. So confusing. Black people are of many colors.

FOR the first time, in 1999  Black descendants of U.S. President Thomas Jefferson recently attended the annual Jefferson family reunion at his Monticello estate in Charlottesville, VA.

At the emotional and at times angry family meetings, White descendants of President Jefferson refused to let Black relatives of his slave Sally Hemings join the family’s Monticello Association.

I decided that this guy was crazy. I  had asked for proof but he said that the data was in the hands of the family. He was going to law school and we sort of drifted apart after that. I did not know what to believe. Years later , I saw him on television being recognized as a descendant of Thomas Jefferson.

Russell Cooley here is his interview from a PBS presentation

   Robert Cooley is a retired US Army lieutenant colonel currently practicing as an attorney in Richmond, Virginia. He formerly served as a US magistrate and state judge in Virginia and as a military judge in the US Army.
  What is your relationship with Thomas Jefferson?
Thomas Jefferson is my great-great-great-great-great-grandfather.

“Thomas Jefferson is my great-great
-great-great-great-
grandfather.”

  How did that come about?
Well, my grandfather told me about it when I was 10 years old. He called me into his livingroom in Pittsburgh and he said, “Son, it’s time for you to learn about your heritage.” And my grandfather was the president of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society, and he said, “You’re a special person. You’re part of a special family. You, through your mother and me, and my mother and so on, are a descendant of Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States.” I was 10 years old at the time. I was very precocious, too. I was a graduate of high school at the age of 15 and college at 19 and I was a JD at the age of 22. But I knew who Jefferson was. I didn’t know who Sally Hemings was but I knew who Jefferson was. And, for a moment, I was very thrilled by that revelation.

  So without a doubt, Sally Hemings was Thomas Jefferson’s mistress?
Yes. That is…Sally was, without a doubt, Thomas Jefferson’s mistress, lover, substitute wife, for 38 years. No question about it.

“We didn’t know one another, but each of us had virtually the identical oral history.”

  How does your family know that Sally had a relationship with Thomas Jefferson?
Oh, we know it because Sally was a very articulate woman, contrary to current characterizations. She was very articulate. She was very educated. She told us. She told her son Thomas, and Thomas told others in his family. And so, in my family, I have the benefit of 200 years of consistent, solid oral history. And this history was carried on by representatives of at least five different sons and daughters of Thomas Woodson, and later by people who didn’t know one another. There were families in Pennsylvania, in Ohio, in Texas, and in Tennessee. We didn’t know one another, but each of us had virtually the identical oral history.   

See the whole interview at the given URL.

Black Men in the Army Corps of Engineers?

Army Corp of Engineers A tunnel to West Virginia from the White House and there is. Recently it has been expanded but back when I was a kid, I thought those old men had been in the sun too long. I used to think you could find information in books.

Tunnel to West Virginia from the White House

. They said that there was a tunnel that went all the way to West Virginia.They said that they worked it with the Army Corps of Engineers. I listened politely to their stories, but my imagination could not handle a tunnel from DC to West Virginia. I shook my head and ran off to play a game. When I worked at the White House for a technology initiative I was shown the tunnel. When I was in West Virginia I saw the place that is the end of the tunnel. There has been a new “safe” place developed. But I still marveled that such a feat had been accomplished.  I am able to find this information on the Internet about the tunnel and newer projects.

Egyptians are Black, Greek and Arabic

Another old man who wore a Fez talked to me about Egypt. I listened to his stories but did not have the books to read about and learn if he was telling the truth or not. He said that there  were Nubians, black people in Egypt too.

I loved the stories about King Tut and liked reading stories about Egypt. So I decided to go to Egypt. Alone. That was probably not a good idea, but I went. It was totally different than anything I had read I saw the mix of people and read the history of upper and lower Egypt and of the Greek era. It was amazing to me. The people on the street looked like relatives , well some of them. I spent  two weeks in Egypt and had read a lot of books about Upper and Lower Egypt and the Nile. Thanks to the National Geographic I knew how to do the research. I had been razzed because I was wearing a necklace that showed a beautiful woman from Egypt. I was told by some people that she was not black. Neferititi and a person yanked the necklace from around my neck. Never mind  talking about Cleopatra.

Nefertiti

Nefertiti – History.com

Queen Nefertiti (ca. 1370 BC- ca. 1330 BC) was the wife of Akhenaten, one of the most controversial rulers of the 18th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. As … Read more

Here from Wikipedia, is an explanation of race in Egypt. I was living in Greece at the time and they had told me this, but I did not believe it. Here is the information from Wikipedia

Since the second half of the 20th century, scholarly consensus has held that applying modern notions of race to ancient Egypt is anachronistic. Frank M. Snowden asserts that “Egyptians, Greeks and Romans attached no special stigma to the color of the skin and developed no hierarchical notions of race whereby highest and lowest positions in the social pyramid were based on color.”.[2][3] Additionally, typological and hierarchical models of race have increasingly been rejected by scientists.

In the late 20th century, the typological model was revived in the domain of Afrocentric historiography and Black nationalism which tends to insist that Ancient Egypt was a “black civilization”, with particular focus on links to southern African cultures and on the race of specific notable individuals from Dynastic times, including Tutankhamun,[4] Cleopatra VII,[5][6][7] and the king represented in the Great Sphinx of Giza.[8][9

thank you George Lucas for making us aware of some  real hidden history.